Types of Research Design- 10 Different Types of Research Design

Types of Research Design- Different Types of Research Design & 10 Types of Research Design in Research.

Types of Research Design

Nobody can deny the importance of sophisticated research. Research is the process of discovering new knowledge and ideas. Recently, the researcher has become more advanced by skilled and trained. At present, researchers conduct the mixed method of research by applying both non-experimental and experimental designs. Usually, there are two types of research design such as experimental and nonexperimental research. Experimental research is divided into many designs, including Descriptive, Historical, Correlation, qualitative, et cetera. On the other hand, experimental research is divided into two methods: true experimental and Quasi-experimental research methods.

Difference Between Nonexperimental and Experimental Research

Nonexperimental Research Experimental Research
Firstly, Nonexperimental research determines the natural relationship between variables. In contrast, experimental research investigates the cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Additionally, the researcher does not control the setting of the study. On the other hand, researchers control the setting of the study.
In this research design, researchers do not introduce external variables. In this research design, researchers introduce external variables.
Researchers do not manipulate the independent variable. Nonetheless, the researcher manipulates the independent variable methodically.
For example,  Investigating the perception of the children in the  COVID-19 pandemic. For example, Testing the effect of the COVID-19 vaccine among children.
Usually, Nonexperimental research is both quantitative and qualitative. On the other hand, experimental research is quantitative.
Nonexperimental research is intended to explain the subject’s characteristics, including the current situation, comparative position, and prediction. However, experimental research is used to solve problems, create advanced innovation, and progress in medical science.
Types of Research Design
Research Design Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method
Figure 1: Types of Research Design

1. Nonexperimental Research

Nonexperimental research explains the researcher’s observation describing the natural condition of the study phenomenon. The nonexperimental research determines the normal relationship between variables but is not intended to identify the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It only describes relationships between variables without testing causal relationships among them. This research is not involved in the manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, it does not introduce any external variable, and variables are not manipulated. Researchers do not control the setting of the research.

For example, a researcher wants to investigate the relationship between the awareness of fake news sharing and Brand the trust of Facebook among youth. Here, the researcher wants to determine the relationship between awareness of fake news sharing and Brand trust of Facebook. Actually, it does not indicate the causal relationship between variables.

Different Types of Research Design

The 10 Types of Research Design are:

  1. Quantitative Research Design
  2. Descriptive Research Design
  3. Correlational Research Design
  4. Historical Research Design
  5. Qualitative Research
  6. Case Study Research Design
  7. Mixed Methods Research Design
  8. Review Research Design
  9. Developmental Research
  10. Experimental Research Design
Descriptive Research Design

The descriptive research method describes the characteristics and features of existing phenomena at the time of research. It also provides a broad picture of the phenomena to convey a better understanding through the study. The time frame of the study is present. Descriptive research is the foundation of all other types of research. It does not involve control variables or treatments. However, the correlation between variables is characterized.  There are many types of descriptive research, for example, Survey research, Correlation research, Developmental research (Longitudinal approach & Cross-section approach), Normative research, Naturalistic observational research, Comparative research, Data analysis research, Action research, etc. 

For example, a researcher wants to survey the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Based on the topic, the researcher should apply the descriptive research method to explain the feature of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Another example of the descriptive research design is ” the perception of Malaysia people on the use of social media to spread fake political news.

Survey Research Design

Survey research examines the relationships and frequency between sociological and psychological variables. It assesses the psychological factors such as beliefs, values, attitudes, prejudices, discriminations, opinions, and preferences.

Examples of the survey research are evaluating the following:

  • Student’s attitudes toward the use of smartphones in the classroom.
  • Teacher’s opinion in conducting online classes
  • The perception of teenagers in the advantage of social media platforms
How to Conduct Survey Research

Any survey research begins with a general (flow) plan that shows the entire process of survey research.

  1. Clarify the purpose of the study
  2. Defining the sample plan
  3. Define a method also part of the interviewing session 

Defining method stage of survey research will determine the answer to the following questions

  • How will the questions be structured?
  • What types of questions will be asked?
  • How will the sample be defined?
  • How will the data be collected?

4. Finally, Coding and scoring

Tools of the Survey Research- Interview

The interview is the basic tool of the survey research design. However, a Face sheet is an essential element to conduct an interview session properly. Face sheet information represents neutral information about the study respondent, such as age, gender, living place, educational level, income, etc.

Pros of  the Face sheet—Neutral background information
  • First, it helps establish rapport with the respondents or interviewees. For example, where did you study? How many siblings do you have?
  • Secondly, it establishes data frames or characteristics.
Two Types of Questions For Interviewees. 
  • Structured questions in which respondents can give explicit answers.
  • On the other hand, open-ended questions permit the interviewee to give elaborative answers.

Advantages of the Interview 

  • Flexibility in collecting data
  • The interviewer can set the tone and agenda

Disadvantages of the Interview

  • Expensive
  • Lack of anonymity, so responses might not be honest
  • Lack standardized questions
 Process of developing an Interview
  • Firstly, describe the goals of the project.
  • Secondly, select an appropriate sample.
  • thirdly, develop interview questions.
  • Fourthly, train interviewers.
  • Finally, Conduct interviews.
The Ten Essential Commandments of Interviewing 
  1. Do not begin the interview cold.
  2. Remember that you are there to get information.
  3. Be direct.
  4. Dress appropriately.
  5. Find a quiet place to conduct the interview.
  6. If your interviewee doesn’t give a satisfactory answer the first time, don’t give up.
  7. Use a tape recorder.
  8. Make the interviewee a part of the interview.
  9. To be a good interviewer, practice more.
  10. Thank interviewees for their help, and ask for questions. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research

Advantages of Survey Research design

  • Permits researcher to get a broad picture (good generalization)
  • Efficient data collection
  • Can yield very accurate results

Disadvantages of Survey Research design

  • Bias (Interviewer bias and Interviewee bias)
  • Non-response

Correlational Research Design

Correlation research design describes the relationship between two variables. It identifies the associated factors of the phenomenon that are co-related to one another. It also discovers how connected these factors are to each other and the strength of the relationship between variables. A numerical index measures the strength of the relationship called the correlation coefficient. The time frame of this research might be present or past, and future. Actually, it shows the past or present relationship between variables and offers predictions for the future. It implies that variables share something in common.

For example, a researcher wants to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Based on the topic, the researcher should use a Correlation research design to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Another example of the correlation research design is “Influence of Teenager’s Awareness of Fake News Spreading and Perceived Message Trustworthiness towards The Brand Trust of Twitter.

Correlation Coefficient

The correlation coefficient measures the degree of linear relatedness between two variables. There are two types of correlation, for example, positive correlation and negative correlation. The positive correlation is good, yet the negative correlation is not bad. basically, both positive and negative correlation indicates the direction of the relationship; nothing else. The absolute value of the coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship. Variance increased when a stronger relationship between variables existed. Varies between –1.00 and +1.00.

Historical Research

Historical research investigates the past event and establishes the present concept of the event. It also describes the past fact of the event that affects the current situation. The objective of the historical research method is to collect and evidence from the past event to develop a fact that defends or refutes the hypothesis. Historical research is another term of historiography.

For example, researchers desire to identify the historical progress of women’s education in Malaysia. So, the historical research design will be the option to conduct the research.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research design examines human behavior in the social, political, and cultural context in which it occurs. The qualitative research method is part of nonexperimental research; therefore, it never tests the cause and effect relationship between variables. The researcher applies different paradigms and tools to conduct qualitative research. The most important tools of qualitative research are interviews, ethnography, case studies, and ethnography. It provides nonnumerical qualitative data that is also known as primary data. In qualitative research, the researchers focus on the content of informants rather than the frequency of particular content.  Here, the informant is the interviewees or people who the researcher has interviewed. The time frame is present and past.

For example, a researcher desires to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children. So, they will implement the qualitative research method to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children in the country.

Experimental Research
  • Tries to discover causal relationships
  • Two types:
  1. True experimental research
  2. Quasi-experimental research

True experimental Research

  • For example, Comparing two different techniques

Quasi-Experimental Research

  • For example, Participants are preassigned to groups
  • Useful when the researcher cannot manipulate variables.
When to use what research design

Research design cheat sheet

The research design cheat sheet attached below will

Research design
Figure 2: Research Design Cheat Sheet
Basis Research Design and Applied Research Design

Basic research has no instant execution to the world. Usually, researchers apply these basic types of research design to expand the knowledge of certain phenomena. Pure research is another name of basic research. For example, a study looking at how the online class during the COVID-19 pandemic increases depression among students. Researchers are intended to expand knowledge by this study or research; it has no instant application to society.

Applied research has immediate execution or application to the world. Researchers use this research to solve the problem. Therefore, it has an immediate practical use to resolve the problem or answer the question. For example, the research to invent the COVID-19 vaccine is an instance of applied research; because it has immediate application to the world.

Questionnaire Sample- Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper

Questionnaire Sample- Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper. Questionnaire Example For Research. Sample Questionnaire For Research Paper, Proposal, & Project PDF.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire refers to a quantitative research tool consisting of multiple questions to collect information from respondents. The most common questionnaire types are the quantitative and customer satisfaction questionnaires. The respondents are the sample of the population who participate in the survey providing data. It is also known as the survey questions part of the written interview. The survey can be conducted face to face or on online platforms.

Questionnaire Sample

A questionnaire sample is an example of survey questions that assist the researcher in collecting data. The questionnaire sample assists the new researchers in setting a questionnaire perfectly based on the research topic. The sample of the questionnaire has been collected from University students. New researchers will get a concept of how to create a survey questionnaire. This sample of questionnaires represents an example of questionnaires.

The author has presented some different research questionnaire examples and set download links here so that readers download the pdf form. This sample and example of research questionnaires might provide a better level of understanding for the new researchers.

Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper

The questionnaire sample for the research paper will provide precise ideas about producing a survey questionnaire for a quantitative research paper. Many undergraduate and postgraduate students do not know how to set questionnaires properly; therefore, we have provided a sample and example of the questionnaire. We really hate coping with other works; hence, we request you take only our content ideas to create your own questionnaire. Students can comment on this page to get more information if they need it that is not yet reported here.

Questionnaire Sample For Research

Survey Questionnaires Sample For Research Paper

The examples of survey questionnaires have been given below. The students have set this questionnaire to conduct the research project. Additionally, the author has collected some survey questionnaires from researchers who are experts in research. So, these questionnaires will assist students in preparing their research questionnaire. Many students and researchers might adapt them to write the thesis and dissertation.

Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-1
Research Title: Relationship between Awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the Perception of Message Credibility and Brand Trust of Facebook among youths.

Survey Questionnaire Introduction Sample For Research Paper

Dear Participants, I am inviting you to participate in this research by completing the following survey. This research investigates the relationship between the awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the perception of message credibility and brand trust on Facebook among youths. The following questionnaire will require approximately 5-10 minutes to complete. Thank you for taking the time to assist me with this research. Under no circumstances are you obliged to answer any of the questions; however, doing so will greatly assist me in completing my research and enhancing my understanding of this research focus. The data collected will remain confidential and used solely for academic purposes.

Sample Questionnaire For Research- Download Link
Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-2
Research Title: Malaysia’s e-commerce Websites’ Information and its Influence on Customers’ Information Privacy Concerns.

Dear Sir/Madam

The researcher is a master’s student of corporate communication at UPM. This survey aims to gain insight into Malaysia’s e-commerce websites’ information and its influence on customers’ information privacy concerns. The survey questionnaires have been adapted from previous research conducted on information privacy concerns. For more understanding of the questions, short notes are given for more explanation on the topic. Your opinions are highly appreciated and strictly confidential. The researcher of this project has only the power to access the data. The researcher intends to include the survey report in the findings and discussion chapter. 

Thank You Very Much For Your Time

Sample Questionnaire For Research Paper Download Link
Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-3
Research Title: Communicating Copyright Law in Malaysia: The Perception of Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia.

Dear Participants.
I am inviting you to participate in this research by completing the following survey questionnaires. This research paper aims to know the knowledge of Communicating Copyright Law in Malaysia: The
Perception of Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia. The following survey questionnaire will take approximately 3-7 minutes to complete. Advance, thank you for taking your time to assist with this research. Under no circumstances are you obliged to answer any of the questions; however, pay your all-out effort to assist me in completing my study and enhancing my understanding of this research focus. The data collected will remain confidential and used solely for this research paper.

Sincerely,

Name:

Final Year Student from Bachelor of Communication program
Majoring in Journalism
Faculty of Modern Language and Communication
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Supervisor:

Sample Questionnaire For Research Paper PDF
Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-4
Research Title: From a Pandemic to an Infodemic: Establishing a Health Information Overload Model Based on COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia.

Dear respondent,
I hope you are doing well and staying safe. We are a health communication research team from the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern languages and Communication (FBMK), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). We are conducting a research project to understand how Malaysians perceive COVID-19 as dangerous and serious, what social media they use to seek information, and how likely they are overloaded with it. Meanwhile, we also seek to understand how much Malaysians understand the virus and intend to get COVID-19 vaccination.

There are eight (8) sections in this online survey questionnaire. You are expected to answer ALL the questions listed. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to. If you volunteer to be in this study, you may withdraw from it at any time. There is no potential risk or harm to you for participating in this research project. If you have any concerns or questions, please contact the investigators of this research project. You are also very encouraged to share this questionnaire with your family members, friends, and others in your community; it would surely help us better understand COVID-19 issues in Malaysia.

Please click the “NEXT” button below to answer the questions if you agree to participate in this research.
Thank you for your time, and we hope you and your loved ones are staying safe always.

Sample Questionnaire For Research Paper Download Link
Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-5

Project Title: Factors Affecting Adoption of E-Payment Among Bangladeshi Students in Bangladesh

Dear respondents,

I am a final year undergraduate student for Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) from the University Putra Malaysia (UPM). This survey aims to evaluate the factors affecting the adoption of e-payment among Bangladeshi Students in Bangladesh.

Instruction:

There are SIX (6) pages in this questionnaire. Please answer ALL questions which are needed on ALL pages. Completion of this questionnaire will take you approximately 5 to 10 minutes. Please feel free to share your information in the space provided. The content of this questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential and used only for academic research purposes.

Thank you very much for your time.

Sample Questionnaire For Research Paper PDF Download
Questionnaire Sample For Students PDF-6
Project Title: The Effectiveness of Communication Efforts on Mount Fuji, Japan.

Hello respondents! We are students from University Putra Malaysia’s KOM3405 (Heritage Communication). We are currently surveying the effectiveness of communication efforts on Mount Fuji, Japan. So, we would like to invite you to participate in this survey.

Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan. It is one of the World Heritage Sites as stated by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).

The information provided is only for academic purposes and will be strictly confidential. This participation is entirely voluntary. This survey will only take 5 minutes. Your participation is highly appreciated.

Thank you.

Sincerely,

Questionnaire Sample For Students PDF
Questionnaire Sample For Students PDF
Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-7

(Sample demographic questionnaire for students)

Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper

survey questionnaire sample for research paper

survey questionnaire sample for research paper

Questionnaire Sample For Research Paper-7

Questionnaire Sample- UPM Logo

Dear respondent,

I am a student at the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication at the University Putra Malaysia. I wish to collect some information about your awareness of obesity.

You are invited to participate in this survey in which your insight and information are valuable for us to strategize the health communication campaign to be more effective. I greatly appreciate your help in providing us with your honest answers to the questions below. I reassure you that the information gathered in this survey will only be used for event purposes and kept confidential.

Thank you.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC

A1 Ethnic Malay Indian
A2 Gender Chinese. Other: ______________
□ Male. □ Female
A3 Age Below 15 31–35
15–19 36–40
20–25 41–45
26–30 Above 45

A4. Which written language(s) do you understand? (Choose whichever is relevant)

Malay English
Chinese Tamil

A5. Which spoken language do you prefer? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Malay English
Mandarin Tamil
Cantonese Hakka
Hokkien Other: ___________

SECTION B: MEDIA CONSUMPTION

B1. What are the primary sources you use the most to obtain health information? (Choose a minimum of one (1) answer and a maximum of three (3) answers).

Newspaper Internet
Magazine Facebook
Television Instagram
Radio Twitter
WeChat Other: ______________

B2. If you have selected a newspaper as one of the sources for obtaining information about health, which newspaper vehicle do you read the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Sin Chew Daily Guang Hwa Daily
China Press Oriental Daily
Nanyang Siang Pau The Star
Utusan Malaysia Berita Harian
Kosma! News StraitTime
Guang Ming Daily Other: ______________
SECTION C: MEDIA PREFERENCE

C1. Do you watch local television (TV) station(s)?

  • Yes (Proceed to Q2)
  • No (Proceed to Q4)

C2. How many hours of TV do you watch in a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day

C3. Which TV channel do you watch the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Astro NTV 7
RTM 1 8TV
RTM 2 TV 9
TV 3 Other: ______________
C4. Do you listen to the local radio?
  • Yes (Proceed to Q5)
  • No (Proceed to Q7)

C5. How many hours of local radio station do you listen to a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day

C6. Which local radio station do you listen to the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

One FM Hitz. FM
988 FM Fly FM
Melody FM Lite FM
MY FM Mix FM
Ai FM Era FM
Red FM Hot FM
Sinar FM Other: ______________

C7. Which social media do you use the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Facebook Twitter
Instagram WeChat
WhatsApp Other: ______________

SECTION D: Awareness of Obesity

Tick (✓) the spaces provided to indicate your level of agreement with the statements below.

Instruction: Please answer the following section based on the following scale:

  1. Strongly Disagree
  2. Disagree
  3. Somewhat Agree
  4. Agree
  5. Strongly Agree
D-I. Problem Recognition
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
1 Obesity is becoming an increasingly significant problem in my community.
2 There is an urgent need to solve the obesity problem in my community.
3 There is much room for local authorities and the government to improve the policies controlling obesity in Malaysia.
4 I believe the prevention of obesity is essential.
D-II. Constraint Recognition
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
1 I cannot do anything to solve the obesity problem in my community.
2 My efforts to combat the obesity problem in my community are pointless.
3 I do not see any point in trying to encourage my community members to control their weight.
4 I think I could not affect my community members to control their weight and to prevent obesity.
D-III. Involvement Recognition
No Statements 1 2 3 4 5
1 I am concerned that being overweight is affecting my life.
2 I believe obesity could affect my health.
3 I have a strong opinion about obesity.
4 I feel that obesity affects me personally.

– – End of Survey Questionnaire – –

Thank you for answering.

Demographics Questionnaire For Research
Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF
Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF