Types of Research Design- 10 Different Types of Research Design

Types of Research Design- Different Types of Research Design & 10 Types of Research Design in Research.

Types of Research Design

Nobody can deny the importance of sophisticated research. Research is the process of discovering new knowledge and ideas. Recently, the researcher has become more advanced by skilled and trained. At present, researchers conduct the mixed method of research by applying both non-experimental and experimental designs. Usually, there are two types of research design such as experimental and nonexperimental research. Experimental research is divided into many designs, including Descriptive, Historical, Correlation, qualitative, et cetera. On the other hand, experimental research is divided into two methods: true experimental and Quasi-experimental research methods.

Difference Between Nonexperimental and Experimental Research

Nonexperimental Research Experimental Research
Firstly, Nonexperimental research determines the natural relationship between variables. In contrast, experimental research investigates the cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Additionally, the researcher does not control the setting of the study. On the other hand, researchers control the setting of the study.
In this research design, researchers do not introduce external variables. In this research design, researchers introduce external variables.
Researchers do not manipulate the independent variable. Nonetheless, the researcher manipulates the independent variable methodically.
For example,  Investigating the perception of the children in the  COVID-19 pandemic. For example, Testing the effect of the COVID-19 vaccine among children.
Usually, Nonexperimental research is both quantitative and qualitative. On the other hand, experimental research is quantitative.
Nonexperimental research is intended to explain the subject’s characteristics, including the current situation, comparative position, and prediction. However, experimental research is used to solve problems, create advanced innovation, and progress in medical science.
Types of Research Design
Research Design Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method
Figure 1: Types of Research Design

1. Nonexperimental Research

Nonexperimental research explains the researcher’s observation describing the natural condition of the study phenomenon. The nonexperimental research determines the normal relationship between variables but is not intended to identify the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It only describes relationships between variables without testing causal relationships among them. This research is not involved in the manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, it does not introduce any external variable, and variables are not manipulated. Researchers do not control the setting of the research.

For example, a researcher wants to investigate the relationship between the awareness of fake news sharing and Brand the trust of Facebook among youth. Here, the researcher wants to determine the relationship between awareness of fake news sharing and Brand trust of Facebook. Actually, it does not indicate the causal relationship between variables.

Different Types of Research Design

The 10 Types of Research Design are:

  1. Quantitative Research Design
  2. Descriptive Research Design
  3. Correlational Research Design
  4. Historical Research Design
  5. Qualitative Research
  6. Case Study Research Design
  7. Mixed Methods Research Design
  8. Review Research Design
  9. Developmental Research
  10. Experimental Research Design
Descriptive Research Design

The descriptive research method describes the characteristics and features of existing phenomena at the time of research. It also provides a broad picture of the phenomena to convey a better understanding through the study. The time frame of the study is present. Descriptive research is the foundation of all other types of researches. It does not involve control variables or treatments. However, the correlation between variables is characterized.  There are many types of descriptive research, for example, Survey research, Correlation research, Developmental research (Longitudinal approach & Cross-section approach), Normative research, Naturalistic observational research, Comparative research, Data analysis research, Action research, etc. 

For example, a researcher wants to survey the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Based on the topic, the researcher should apply the descriptive research method to explain the feature of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Another example of the descriptive research design is ” the perception of Malaysia people on the use of social media to spread fake political news.

Survey Research Design

Survey research examines the relationships and frequency between sociological and psychological variables. It assesses the psychological factors such as beliefs, values, attitudes, prejudices, discriminations, opinions, and preferences.

Examples of the survey research are evaluating the following:

  • Student’s attitudes toward the use of smartphones in the classroom.
  • Teacher’s opinion in conducting online classes
  • The perception of teenagers in the advantage of social media platforms
How to Conduct Survey Research

Any survey research begins with a general (flow) plan that shows the entire process of survey research.

  1. Clarify the purpose of the study
  2. Defining the sample plan
  3. Define a method also part of the interviewing session 

Defining method stage of survey research will determine the answer to the following questions

  • How will the questions be structured?
  • What types of questions will be asked?
  • How will the sample be defined?
  • How will the data be collected?

4. Finally, Coding and scoring

Tools of the Survey Research- Interview

The interview is the basic tool of the survey research design. However, a Face sheet is an essential element to conduct an interview session properly. Face sheet information represents neutral information about the study respondent, such as age, gender, living place, educational level, income, etc.

Pros of  the Face sheet—Neutral background information
  • First, it helps establish rapport with the respondents or interviewees. For example, where did you study? How many siblings do you have?
  • Secondly, it establishes data frames or characteristics.
Two Types of Questions For Interviewees. 
  • Structured questions in which respondents can give explicit answers.
  • On the other hand, open-ended questions permit the interviewee to give elaborative answers.

Advantages of the Interview 

  • Flexibility in collecting data
  • The interviewer can set the tone and agenda

Disadvantages of the Interview

  • Expensive
  • Lack of anonymity, so responses might not be honest
  • Lack standardized questions
 Process of developing an Interview
  • Firstly, describe the goals of the project.
  • Secondly, select an appropriate sample.
  • thirdly, develop interview questions.
  • Fourthly, train interviewers.
  • Finally, Conduct interviews.
The Ten Essential Commandments of Interviewing 
  1. Do not begin the interview cold.
  2. Remember that you are there to get information.
  3. Be direct.
  4. Dress appropriately.
  5. Find a quiet place to conduct the interview.
  6. If your interviewee doesn’t give a satisfactory answer the first time, don’t give up.
  7. Use a tape recorder.
  8. Make the interviewee a part of the interview.
  9. To be a good interviewer, practice more.
  10. Thank interviewees for their help, and ask for questions. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research

Advantages of Survey Research design

  • Permits researcher to get a broad picture (good generalization)
  • Efficient data collection
  • Can yield very accurate results

Disadvantages of Survey Research design

  • Bias (Interviewer bias and Interviewee bias)
  • Non-response

Correlational Research Design

Correlation research design describes the relationship between two variables. It identifies the associated factors of the phenomenon that are co-related to one another. It also discovers how connected these factors are to each other and the strength of the relationship between variables. A numerical index measures the strength of the relationship called the correlation coefficient. The time frame of this research might be present or past, and future. Actually, it shows the past or present relationship between variables and offers predictions for the future. It implies that variables share something in common.

For example, a researcher wants to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Based on the topic, the researcher should use a Correlation research design to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Another example of the correlation research design is “Influence of Teenager’s Awareness of Fake News Spreading and Perceived Message Trustworthiness towards The Brand Trust of Twitter.

Correlation Coefficient

The correlation coefficient measures the degree of linear relatedness between two variables. There are two types of correlation, for example, positive correlation and negative correlation. The positive correlation is good, yet the negative correlation is not bad. basically, both positive and negative correlation indicates the direction of the relationship; nothing else. The absolute value of the coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship. Variance increased when a stronger relationship between variables existed. Varies between –1.00 and +1.00.

Historical Research

Historical research investigates the past event and establishes the present concept of the event. It also describes the past fact of the event that affects the current situation. The objective of the historical research method is to collect and evidence from the past event to develop a fact that defends or refutes the hypothesis. Historical research is another term of historiography.

For example, researchers desire to identify the historical progress of women’s education in Malaysia. So, the historical research design will be the option to conduct the research.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research design examines human behavior in the social, political, and cultural context in which it occurs. The qualitative research method is part of nonexperimental research; therefore, it never tests the cause and effect relationship between variables. The researcher applies different paradigms and tools to conduct qualitative research. The most important tools of qualitative research are interviews, ethnography, case studies, and ethnography. It provides nonnumerical qualitative data that is also known as primary data. In qualitative research, the researchers focus on the content of informants rather than the frequency of particular content.  Here, the informant is the interviewees or people who the researcher has interviewed. The time frame is present and past.

For example, a researcher desires to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children. So, they will implement the qualitative research method to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children in the country.

Experimental Research
  • Tries to discover causal relationships
  • Two types:
  1. True experimental research
  2. Quasi-experimental research

True experimental Research

  • For example, Comparing two different techniques

Quasi-Experimental Research

  • For example, Participants are preassigned to groups
  • Useful when the researcher cannot manipulate variables.
When to use what research design

Research design cheat sheet

The research design cheat sheet attached below will

Research design
Figure 2: Research Design Cheat Sheet
Basis Research Design and Applied Research Design

Basic research has no instant execution to the world. Usually, researchers apply these basic types of research design to expand the knowledge of certain phenomena. Pure research is another name of basic research. For example, a study looking at how the online class during the COVID-19 pandemic increases depression among students. Researchers are intended to expand knowledge by this study or research; it has no instant application to society.

Applied research has immediate execution or application to the world. Researchers use this research to solve the problem. Therefore, it has an immediate practical use to resolve the problem or answer the question. For example, the research to invent the COVID-19 vaccine is an instance of applied research; because it has immediate application to the world.

Travelogue Examples for Students & Travelogue Sample- Tour To Japan

Travelogue Example for Students & Travelogue Sample- Tour To Japan. Travelogue Example & Samples. How to write a travel article. Travelogue Writing Samples or Examples.

Different Types of Journalism
Travelogue Article

The travelogue article refers to the feature writing about traveling guides with detailed information, including photos and suggestions. There are many types of feature articles; the most essential five types of feature articles are Personality Feature, How-To Feature, Review Feature, Obituary Feature, and Travelogue Feature Article.

Elements of Travelogue Article

The elements of an ideal travelogue article are 1. Analyze the Place Or Visit It, 2. Write Descriptively, 3. Mention how to go there, 4. Discuss the hotel and motel, 5. Review the cultural and traditional background, 6. Explain the historical and famous places, 7. Discuss the food and restaurant, 8. Explain the transportation, 9. Discuss the weather and atmosphere, 10. Notify the shopping mall, 11. Mention Some Dos and Don’ts of the Place.

Travelogue Example for Students

This travelogue example is for students who want to know how to write a travelogue article. The title of this travelogue article is “Tour To Tokyo, Japan: The Place of Peace.” Actually, this article is written by a journalism student at University Putra Malaysia. Students may follow the structure of this article to know how to write a travelogue article. The sample and example travelogue for students has been illustrated below. However, the photos added to this article might capture in proper ways.

Tour To Tokyo, Japan: The Place of Peace

Tokyo is the most beautiful and peaceful capital city in Japan, where every tourist wants to enjoy its breathtaking nature, historical buildings, delicious food, and traditional places. A rumor, I had heard that traveling to Tokyo is very expensive. My tour to Japan has discovered an ample travel guide to visit Japan on a cheap budget that will help every tripper who is craving to see the beauty of Tokyo.

I planned to visit Japan from Malaysia, as I am staying here since 2016. In 2018, I got an opportunity to participate in an international conference held by the University Tsukuba in Tokyo, Japan. As my first step, I tried to book an air ticket at a low price because my budget was average. Most of the airline ticket price was expensive that made me a little bit worried. Then I had the idea that Air Asia offers cheap plane tickets with limited baggage. I have no extra baggage so that I can accept this opportunity. Luckily I managed to book a two-way ticket at a low price.

After nine hours journey, when the plane reached Haneda Airport, I had become amused to see the beauty of Japan. Tokyo is both the economic and political center of the country. It is one of the most populous capital cities globally, and the total population is around 37.4 million. This beautiful city has become the host of many international programs and events, for example, three G7 Summits and the Summer Olympics in 1964. The airport decorated by the digital poster and banner declared they would be the host of the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Japanese are very kind, humble, helpful, and polite that I perceived during conversation and asking for help from them. I thought that how these Japanese people were indulged in the Second World War. Really there is no country in the world immune from stereotypes. I had a very confusing concept about Japanese people until visiting Tokyo. Confusions have been faded away when I spent five days here.

According to my pre-planned, I decided to stay with my friend instead of a hotel. He lives in the Akabane area; it is around 30 kilometers far from the Haneda International airport. So, I was looking for a station where can get the train to go to Akabane. I asked a Japanese police officer to help me to find the train station which one takes me there. I became amused to see his hospitability; because he had taken me to the exact location from where I can get the train. He also paid money for my ticker because of not having the Japanese currency. The tickets cost ¥1400, and the journey takes 55 minutes. Finally, he bowed to exchange greetings when saying goodbye to me. It is a tradition in Japan to bow while exchanging greetings with each other.

I caught the last train from Haneda Airport Terminal 3 Train Station, and after 55 minutes, I arrived at Akabane station at 11:45 AM. I saw my friend waiting for me outside of the station, wearing an anti-cold jacket. It made me amused. I felt freezing whenever I came out of the station; because this area was not under air-condition. Instantly, I got out my jacket from my baggage and put it on to protect myself from bitterly cold weather. I am always afraid of cold weather, but I indeed enjoyed the cold weather in Japan.

It was three minutes’ walking distance from the station to my friend’s house, so we started to walk, and finally, we reached our destination at 12:30 PM. It is the second time I became astonished that my friend did not lock his house. For my curiosity, I asked him why not lock his house when getting outside. He replied that there is a rare house robbery incident in Japan, even though you leave your houses without locking them.

Travelogue Example for Students - M M Kobiruzzaman Tour To Japan

Figure 1: Oshiage Station Near Skytree

The next morning, I woke up very early to get ready and participate in a conference held by the University of Tsukuba. This is the first time I fall in love with the beauty of Japan to see the amazing weather. It was freezing weather with windy and falling snow. This is my first experience of seeing falling snow in my life. I had a dream to experience this kind of atmosphere that I had only seen in the cinema. My dreams came true through the Japan tour. It is my habit to capture photos; therefore, I captured some photos inside and outside the station. Now I know how to purchase a ticket at the ticket machine that the Japanese police officer taught me yesterday night. I purchased my ticket to get to the University of Tsukuba.

Travelogue Example for Students - M M Kobiruzzaman Tour To Japan
Figure 2: The Main Entrance of The  Tsukuba University

I joined the APEC- Tsukuba International Conference XIII, and they offered a buffet lunch for all participants.  There was no doubt that this conference paved the new way for me to be connected with academic life in the future. The university appointed few guides to ease our movements in new places. The guider took us to a restaurant to have lunch. It was my first opportunity to test Japanese food. I thought I would not feel comfortable eating Japanese food when I saw them on the table. My concept turned reverse when I tried them. These foods were very delicious that everyone enjoyed them.

Most of the food items were preferable to me except eating raw eggs. Japanese restaurant provides raw eggs to eat, and many Japanese and foreigner eat them.  I stopped eating in the meantime of having lunch to think that these foods are halal or not. I asked the guide for confirmation, and he replied that these foods are perfectly halal and this is also a halal restaurant. He also said that all restaurants in Japan are not halal, so Muslims should be more aware of having food in a Japanese restaurant. The obesity rate in Japan is higher than in other countries; therefore, they set different prices for the same food for lunch and dinner. Usually, they set the dinner food price higher to discourage people from having heavy food at night.

Travelogue Example for Students - M M Kobiruzzaman Tour To Japan

Figure 3: Traditional Japanese Restaurant

The gift-giving etiquette is another ritualistic and meaningful custom in Japan. They offer gifts on many occasions; for example, they provided many traditional gifts for all participants at the conference. Nobody can deny the cordial hospitality offered by the University of Tsukuba. Along with me, all participants who come from many countries became glad to them and praised them. They are treating us very politely. I became confused several times when I thought about how they attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 upon the United States. In my opinion, Tokyo is the most secure and peaceful capital in the world for living without the hassle.

I decided to take a rest for the third day because of having extremely tiredness. Luckily my friend managed to approve his two holidays to give me more time. We spent the whole day together inside the house gossiping, cooking, and eating. In addition, we planned to roam around Tokyo the next day. I have to go back to Malaysia in two days, so I need to make a proper plan to see all the best places in Tokyo within two days. We divided Tokyo city into two zones for visiting them in two days.

On the fourth day, I with my friend followed the train to visit SKYTREE, also the tallest tower in Japan located at Sumida, Tokyo. It costs only JP¥450 and around 30 minutes from Akabane station to Oshiage Station (SKYTREE) but need to change platform two times. Since 2011, it is the tallest structure in Japan, extended its full height of 634.0 meters, and made it the second tallest tower and structure globally, after the Canton Tower and the Burj Khalifa. The primary objective to use this tower is for broadcasting purposes; for example, they use it for TV signal and radio waves for national broadcaster NHK and few numbers TV channels.

Every day they allow only 10,000 tourists to visit the sky tree. The ticket option is divided into three types such as combo ticket, Tembo gallery, and Tembo deck. The price of the tickets is around JP¥10,000 for all three decks. Tourists can visit only one or two or all three decks as per their wish. My excitement gets palpable when I was lifting to the top floor of the Sky Tree. We had visited all three decks—the appearance of the tower changes with changes in the color of light.

I feel that my tour to Japan has been successful when I saw the whole Tokyo city from the Tembo deck also the top floor of the tower. It was an awesome feeling to view the entire city from the top floor at night. After all, I did not forget to buy some souvenirs from the observation levels of Tokyo Sky Tree; it made my journey more effective.

Travelogue Example for Students - M M Kobiruzzaman Tour To Japan

Figure 4: The Main Entrance of the Tokyo Skytree

Good time flies so fast. It was difficult to realize that I have spent five days here. My returning flight schedule was at night; I made it to utilize the whole day sightseeing. On my fifth and final day in Japan, I visited many historical and traditional places such as the Imperial Palace, the Sensō-Ji Temple, the National Museum of Nature and Science, and Ueno Park and Zoo. In addition, I tested Japanese street food; although these are a little bit expensive, some foods cost cheap.

There are many places where you can buy souvenirs, gifts, and food cheaply. I purchased some pens, gift items, and great souvenirs at reasonable prices from Nakamise Street, Asakusa. It’s an awesome street to visit and walk along on your path to see the traditional temple, and along the walk, you can buy snacks, traditional gifts like kimonos and sandals, jewelry, phone cases, bags, and hats. Japanese people are well organized into a hierarchy. They always respect the senior people in every sector. Traditionally, seniority acted as the prime qualification for holding a higher rank. I had noticed that many juniors left their seat for senior citizens when I traveled on the train.

In short, Tokyo is not an ordinary place that I forget easily. According to Japanese architect Tadao Ando “Look at London or Paris: they’re both filthy. You don’t get that in Tokyo. The proud residents look after their city.” Traveling to Tokyo was not only a tour but also it was my experience that I earn properly. I can forget my tour but cannot forget my experiences. So, if you love traveling, you will love Tokyo!

Travelogue Article Samples of the Newspaper

Malaysian English Newspaper Travel Article Link

The Daily Star Newspaper Travel Article Link Here

Dhaka Tribune Online Newspaper Travelogue Article Link Here

This is a Travelogue Examples for Students & Travelogue Sample that will help the student to expand knowledge. We really appreciate your comment and suggestions.