Tag: Pros and Cons

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example. Examples of Symbolic such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Table of contents:

  1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory.
  4. History, and Example 

1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?

According to Symbolic Convergence Theory,  People share common fantasies and visions and these collections of individuals are merged into a cohesive group. SCT presents an explanation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Symbolic Convergence Theory consists of three words such as symbolic, convergence, and theory. Group members cooperatively create and sustain a shared consciousness including shared meaning through interaction.

1.1 What is Symbolic?

Symbolic is serving as a symbol that represents or expresses something else such as an idea, an action, quality without using words such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Example of Symbolic:

Code Words: What does FF: AC stands for?

FF: AC stands for “Final Fantasy: Advent Children”. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy action drama film.

For example,  K.L = Kuala Lumpur, K.G= Kilogram, A.C= Air Conditioner

Phrases: Friday becomes a cool, wet afternoon.

Slogans: Think different is an advertising slogan used from 1997 to 2002 by Apple Computer, Inc.

Gestures: The common thumb up sign represents something approved and accepted.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT)- Code Words Phrases Slogans Gestures

1.2 What is Convergence?

Convergence means forming a new unified whole or evolving into one through coming together two or more things. Convergence comes from the prefix con- and verb verge. Here, prefix con means together, and the verb verge, that means to turn toward. We can use convergence to explain things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together. For example, a crowd of mass people all move together into a group.

1.3 What is Theory?

Theory is a set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. It is a formal concept or set of ideas that is aimed to explain something. For example, the Tw0-step flow of communication theory, Groupthink Muted Group Theory, SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY,  Tubb’s Theory- Small Group Communication, and so on.

Symbolic convergence: When 2 or more private symbol worlds incline toward each other, come closer, or overlap, it is called a symbolic convergence. 

2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?

Ernest Bormann established Symbolic Convergence Theory in 1972. SCT was first proposed by Ernest Bormann in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in 1972. Bormann and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota introduced SCT as a framework for discovering, describing, and explaining the dynamic process by which humans come to share symbolic reality.

SCT is a communication-related theory introduced by Ernest Bormann who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota in the United States. American communication theorist best known as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness.  He argued that group consciousness can occur at any level of communication, from within small groups to mass media. Thus, he identified symbolic convergence as a general theory of communication.

3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic Convergence Theory offers an elucidation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Through SCT, members of the group can build a community or a group consciousness which grows stronger if they share a cluster of fantasy themes. Although this theory allows theorists and practitioners to anticipate or predict what did happen and what will happen but it does not allow for control of human communication.

It attempts to explain how communication can create and sustain group consciousness through the sharing of narratives or fantasies. To foster this cohesiveness, dramatizing or using fantasy stories are significant types of communication involved in SCT. SCT explains that meanings, emotions, values, and motives for action are in the communication contexts by people trying to make sense out of a common experience. It is a process through which collectives create and share a consciousness and develop a common symbolic reality.

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Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory

Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory. Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development theory- Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model. Model of Tuckman: Team and Group Development Stages. Bruce Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development. Tuckman’s Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. Teamwork Model:5 Stages of Team and Group Development.

Table of Content:

  1. Tuckman’s Model.

  2. Tuckman’s Group Development Stages.

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model.

1.Tuckman’s Model:

Bruce Tuckman introduced his group and team development model in 1965. In the 1970s, he added the fifth stage adjourning to his model. According to Tuckman’s model, the five stages are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. A perfect theory to describe how to group and team members adjust and adapt in a group.

Tuckman’s Model
Tuckman’s Model of the five stages of group development

2. Group Development Stages of Tuckman’s Model:

Although, in 1965 Tuckman proposed four-stage of group development model but later he added the fifth stage called adjourning. This model implies not only group and team development theory but also group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group and team development model consists of five important stages that facilitate group formation and development, for example, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.


1. Forming Stage:(Orientation)

  • Members carefully explore both personal and group goals.
  • Tentatively feel uncomfortable about working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues try to understand and test personal relationships.
  • Orient itself to itself.

Primary Tension of forming stage:

  • Social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting-acquainted stage in a new group
  • To be overly polite with one another
  • Members don’t interrupt one another
  • Often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions
  • Talk less and provide little in the way of content

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Firstly, Be positive and energetic.
  • In addition, Smile and Laugh
  • Further, Nod in agreement and Exhibit enthusiasm
  • Furthermore, Be patient and open-minded knowing that certainly, the primary tension will decrease with time.
  • Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting so you can help the group focus on its task.

2. Storming Stage: (Power Struggle)

  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
  • Group members become argumentative also emotional.
  • The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership.
  • Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition and conflict
  • Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing with one another.

Secondary Tension:

  • Frustrations and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group.
  • Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence.
  • High level of energy and agitation
  • The group is noisier, more dynamic and physically active
  • Members speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking at the same time.
  • Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats
  • Everyone is alert and listening intently.

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Making jokes.
  • Work outside the group setting to discuss the personal difficulties and anxieties of group members.

3. Norming Stage: (Cooperation and Integration)

  • Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and task-oriented.
  • Start developing “rules of engagement”.
  • Feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open.
  • Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge.

4. Performing Stage: (Synergy)

  • Members are fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
  • Adjust and adapt, Members start solving critical problems.
  • Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high.
  • Disagreements do occur, but members usually resolved intelligently and amicably.
  • “Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; rather, the members are jovial, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.

5. Adjourning Stage: (Closure)

  • Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband.
  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
  • They are happy for what they have achieved but feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model:

Advantages of Tuckman’s Model:

  • Firstly, this model clarifies the specific stages of any group and team for instance forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  • In addition to that, learning more about primary tension and secondary tension also how to solve it.
  • Finally, Tuckman’s group developing model shows the perfect way of solving group uncertainty issues.

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Impact of Social Media Towards Society,Teenagers and Solution

Impact of Social Media Towards Society, Teenagers, and Solution.

Table of Content:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Discussions and Results.
  3. Impacts of Social Media.
  4. Positive Impacts of Social Media.
  5. Negative Impacts of Social Media.
  6. Solution to the Problem originated from Social Media.
  7. Conclusion.


The technology has changed our lifestyle not only in the way we communicate but in our attitude and relationship with people of different ages living in the society in both positive and negative ways (Giddens, 2018). Social media is one of the leading blessings of the technology that facilitates knowledge sharing among human beings. Today, people can communicate with their fellows easily by sending and receiving messages known as interpersonal communication (Christopher, 2018). Social media combined with technology have enhanced our communicating process widely.

2.Discussions and Results:

At present, nobody can deny the blessing of social media especially to cope with personal, social, political, and official lives. People can communicate with each other from one part of the planet to another part of the planet by using social media. Social media is recognized as sophisticated inventions in the digital era which are making our life easier than before. It is internet-based technologies that assist the sharing of ideas, information, opinion, and thoughts. These are interactive applications that are created based on web.2 internet. As presented by statistic report there are more than 800 social media being used by users such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, WeChat, Google+, LinkedIn, Viber, VK, Pinterest, and so on. It is estimated that the total amounts of registered users of social media are 2.80 billion around the world. According to the recent reports, Facebook is one of the most popular social media that has achieved 2.23 billion active users in a month followed by YouTube, Twitter, and Instagram (Statista, 2018).

Impact of Social Media Towards Society,Teenagers and Solution.

Social media has received a mixed welcome from the different people of distinguished society, for example, it widely used in western countries including India, the USA, Brazil, Indonesia, UK, and Bangladesh (Statistia, 2018; Oltulu, Mannan, & Gardner,2018). However, it is restricted in different levels and in different processes in many countries including China, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, Iran, and Cuba. According to Statistia (2018), India is ranked the first position based on the sharing of Facebook users worldwide. Almost 294 million people are categorized as active Facebook users (Statistia, 2018; Oltulu, Mannan, & Gardner, 2018; Jingjing, & Monica, 2018). [Continue reading…]

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