Models of Communication: The Most Effective Communication Models

Models of Communication: The Most Effective Communication Models. Also, What is the communication model?. Additionally, 3 Types of communication models.

What is the Communication Model?

The communication model refers to the conceptual framework or theory that explains the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication within human beings. The communication model tries to answer the 5WH questions; for example, what is it actually? who is involved in this process? when does it happen? where does it take place? and finally, why does it occur?  Additionally, communication models explain the element of the basic communication process including sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, noise, feedback, and context. The model of communication also explains the factors that bar effective communication. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

3 Types of communication model

The there types of communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A-List of the best communication models and establish year has been outlined below for obtaining more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also attached to the communication model’s table.

Linear Models of Communication
 Models of Communication Year Types  of Communication Models
Aristotle’s Model of Communication 300BC Linear Model of Communication
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Lasswell’s Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication 1960 Linear Model of Communication
Two-Step Flow of Communication Theory 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Interactive Models of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
Transactional Models of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
The Most Effective Models of Communication

The author is going to outline as well as discuss the most effective models of communication in the field of communication.

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear model of communication that mainly focus on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is the first model of communication. Aristotle’s model of communication consists of five elements of the basic communication process for example Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience, and Effect. Aristotle’s model of communication focuses on the speaker. The speaker plays the most important role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. The speech is the message of the speaker that might vary on the occasion.

Models of communication- Aristotle's model of communication
Figure 1: Aristotle’s Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) is delivering a speech to persuade the voter to vote for him in the election. The political leader is the most important person here who is delivering the message or information. The speech is the message that the leader delivers to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. A political leader might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters whether they are motivated to cast vote for him or not.

Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model of communication was introduced by professor Harold Lasswell in 1948. It is a Linear Model of Communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s explains the process of communication by answering the following questions;

  • Who?
  • Says What?
  • In Which Channel?
  • To Whom?
  • With What Effect?
Models of Communication- Lasswel's model of linear communication model
Figure 2: Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s model of communication and the example, firstly, the answer to the question “Who” is the news presenter of BBC News Channel. Secondly, Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the question of “In which Channel” indicates the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people who are watching this channel. Finally, With what effect indicates the awareness.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars Shannon and Weaver in 1948. Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models; although, it is a linear type of communication model.  At first, this model was designed to articulate the process of technical communication. Later, it discusses the process of effective communication. Shannon-Weaver model represents the basic six elements of communication including information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback therefore it is a linear model of communication. Later, this model was been criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is a vital element to create the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

What is the established date of the Shannon-Weaver model?

The Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948. Although there is conversely regarding the establishment year of the Shannon-Weaver model, in 1948, it was introduced by Claude Shannon through his article name Mathematical Theory of Communication. In 1949, Warren Weaver reprints the previous article adding more information. So, it is safe to say that the Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948.

Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR model of communication with four elements of communication including Sender, Message, Channel, Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver which are essential elements of any communication process. Thus, this model of communication is known as Berlo’s SMCR model. Actually, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective.

Models of communication-Berlo's model of commmuncation
Figure 4: Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the basic communication process.

S-Source is the sender of the message who initiates the communication process by sending information. Berlo described some factors that related to the source for example Communication Skills, Attitude Knowledge, Social Systems, Culture

M-Message is the main substance that is conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the receiver. Berlo proposed another five factors that related to the message for example Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code. 

C-Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from source or sender to receiver. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the factor of communication that connected to the channel for instance Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting. There are many types of channels in communication such as telephone, TV, radio, newspapers, etc. These five factors are part of the human communication process.

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. Berlo added the same factors of the element of sources such as skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.