Linear Communication Model Examples With Pros and Cons

Linear Communication Model Example Situation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Linear Model of Communication.

Linear Communication

Linear communication refers to one-way communication like reading books or newspapers, watching television, listening radio, and receiving no-reply emails. It is a particular type of communication that excludes receiver feedback. In this context, senders convey messages without expecting feedback from audiences. The receiver cannot respond to the sender immediately. For example, a company publishes a recruitment circular in a newspaper describing the application process. The authority wants to convey messages to applicants without expecting feedback.

Linear Communication Model

The linear communication model refers to the framework that explains the one-way communication process. Many communication systems are one-way directed, including disseminating news through radio. For example, print media spreads emergency news to readers; but readers cannot respond instantly or provide feedback to the authority. Conveying information through the radio, TV, newspaper, and book is an appropriate example of one-way communication. Therefore, many scientists designed linear communication models to explain these one-way communication processes. Linear means one way.

A linear model excludes Feedback, which is a mandatory element for transactional communication. In a communication process, senders transmit info to receivers. Similarly, receivers respond to senders, which is called Feedback. Effective communication occurs when both senders and receivers respond simultaneously. Feedback is an essential element of the communication process. Therefore, linear communication models have both advantages and disadvantages.

Different Between Linear and Transaction Models

The primary difference between the transactional and linear models is- the transactional model includes Feedback, but the linear model excludes it.

Additionally, the transactional theory can explain two-way communication, including face-to-face interaction. In contrast, the linear model can describe only one-way communication, like reading newspapers.

Finally, transactional models are developed from the linear model. The linear models are older than the transactional model.

Linear Communication Model Example Situation

Linear Model of Communication Example

The Four Examples of Linear Communication Models are:

  1. Aristotle Communication Model- 300BC
  2. Lasswell’s Communication Model- 1948
  3. Shannon-Weaver Communication Model-1949
  4. Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model in 1960
Aristotle Communication Model- 300BC

Aristotle's communication model is a well-known example of a linear model of communication. Greek Scientist Aristotle introduced a linear communication model in 300 BC. He designed the model to explain how to provide political and social speech for audiences. The model is focused on the message and audience or receiver mainly. The five critical components of Aristotle's communication model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. This theory does not mention Feedback; hence, it is a linear communication theory.

Aristotle's Model of Communication

Lasswell’s Communication Model

In 1948, Harold Lasswell described a linear communication model with five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. It is another prominent model to illustrate one-way communication.

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Shannon-Weaver Communication Model

The Shannon-Weaver model is the most notable theory in the communication arena for representing communication noise. It is known as the mother of all communication models. In 1949, Shannon and Weaver published this model to explain how signals are transmitted through channels. The six components of the Shannon-Weaver model are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source.

Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication Example

Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model

In 1960, David Berlo developed another linear communication model with four key elements Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver. Therefore, it is known as the SMCR communication model. Berlo describes five more elements under every critical component. For example, Source includes Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture. Additionally, the message comprises Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code. Moreover, the channel contains hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. The receiver includes the same elements as the message sender.

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Linear Communication Examples

The five examples of linear communication are: (1) Reading books and Newspapers, (2) Watching Television, (3) Listening Radio, (4)  Receiving no-reply emails, and (5) Reading Brochures.

Linear Communication Example Situation-1

Reading newspapers is another example of a one-way communication process. The readers can receive the information but cannot respond.

Linear Communication Example Situation-2

For example, Joe Biden, the 46th U.S. president, delivers a speech on CNN after returning from Ukraine. People are watching television to hear the president's statement. He announces $500 million for military support in Ukraine. The speaker is the message's sender, and the audiences are the receiver. The message has been transmitted through the CNN television channel. However, audiences can not respond to the speech instantly. The feedback is not presented in this type of communication; hence, it is a one-way communication process.

Linear Communication Example Situation-3

Listening radio is an example of linear communication because the audience cannot respond. The audience can listen to news, music, and advertisement.

Linear Communication Example Situation-4

A no-reply email is also an example of a linear communication process. The receiver receives the messages in email but cannot reply to them. A no-reply is sent from the company domain email that doesn't receive feedback.

Linear Communication Model Advantages and Disadvantages

The author explains the strengths and weaknesses of the linear model of communication. The linear model has pros and cons for the theoretical and practical implications.

Advantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, the linear communication model is easy to understand and describes the entire process thoroughly. The communication is straightforward and targeted to specific audiences.

Additionally, the linear model of communication was the initial theory that explains the communication process. The interactive and transactional communication models are designed based on linear models.

Moreover, a linear communication model is inevitable to explain the communication process through print media, TV, letter, Fax, and no-reply email.

Disadvantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, linear models do not represent Feedback; therefore, these models are incomplete. It can explain only the one-way communication process, but not two-way interactions. However, feedback is a significant component of interactive and transactional communication.

In addition, linear communication models cannot describe face-to-face communication as the most effective interaction. Nowadays, people prefer transaction communication systems like face-to-face, phone conversations, video conferences, and more. However, linear theories like Aristotle's, Lasswell’s, Shannon-Weaver's, and David Berlo’s SMCR communication model are unable to explain interactive communication.

Moreover, linear communication is inappropriate for problem-solving, bargaining, and dealing. One-way communication creates miscommunication between sender and receiver, sometimes disseminating misleading information.  Linear models are designed to explain the inappropriate communication process that might create misconceptions about the message delivered by senders.

Furthermore, the Linear model distinguishes the sender and receiver in which the sender always send, and the receiver only receives messages. Naturally, in the communication process, senders work as sender and receiver, and receivers also work as receivers and senders of the message.

Aristotle's Model of Communication Example & Explanation

Aristotle's Model of Communication Example Situation, Elements, and Explanation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aristotle's Model of Communication.

Aristotle's Model of Communication

Aristotle's communication model refers to the linear communication theory focusing on five elements: speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. Greek great scientist Aristotle introduced this most famous communication model in 300 B.C. that mainly focuses on the speech or the message. Hence, it is known as Aristotle's communication model or Aristotelian model. The Aristotelian model is one of the most recognized communication models globally, emphasizing the speaker's role in making a powerful speech. The Aristotle model focuses on public speaking, including how the speaker delivers a message to the audience. As this model was proposed before 300 B.C., it is regarded as the first communication model. Aristotle was a well-known Greek scientist and philosopher born in 384 BC in Stagira on the northern frontier of Classical Greece.

The three types of communication models are linear, interactive, and transactional. Aristotle's communication theory is the initial linear model followed by Shannon-Weaver and Lasswell's communication model.

The author of this content completed postgraduate degree in communication. He explains this model, including elements, examples, and advantages and disadvantages.

Aristotle's Linear Model of Communication

Aristotle's communication model explains a one-way communication process, which is a linear communication model. The linear communication model excludes feedback, whereas the transactional (two-way) model includes feedback. There is no feedback in Aristotle's communication model; hence, it is known as Aristotle's linear model of communication. 

Five Elements of Aristotle's Communication Model

Aristotle's communication model is designed to explain delivering a persuasive speech. The five components of Aristotle's communication model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect.

Aristotle's Model of Communication
Aristotle's Model
Speaker in  Aristotle's Model

The speaker refers to the person who delivers the speech. It is the primary element of the communication process that initiates the conversation. Communication cannot be designed without a speaker. So, it is crucial in all verbal and nonverbal communication types.

Speech iAristotle's Model

Speech is the message of communication that a speaker wants to deliver to audiences. The speaker delivers the speech to accomplish the goal. For example, a political leader produces persuasive speeches to motivate supporters.

Occasion in  Aristotle's Model

Occasion means the context in communication that denotes the environment and represents why conversation occurs. The speech pattern can be distinguished based on the occasion. For example, a political leader delivers speeches based on the situation, including political campaigns and social and personal events.

Audience in  Aristotle's Model

The audience is the receiver of the speech. The speaker addresses a speech to the audience. So, audiences are known as listeners. For example, supporters are the audience in the political campaign. The audience plays a passive role, impacted by the speech. There are two types of audiences such as active and passive audiences. This limits communication to one direction, from speaker to receiver.

Effect in Aristotle's Model

The effect is positive ande ngative, the consequences of the speech. It measures whether the audience is persuaded or not. For example, a marketing manager provides a promotional speech to sell a product. Here, the effect refers to the buying attitude of the customers.

Example of Aristotle's Model of Communication

The 5 examples of Aristotle's communication model are:

1. A charity organization delivering an emotional appeal through Radio to collect funds for refuses (Pathos).

2. The Dettle company advertises their shop on Television mentioning how much bacteria it can protect(Logos).

3. A scholar delivering a lecture on global warming using credibility (Ethos)

4. An editor wrote and published fact-based articles in newspapers to create social awareness (Logos).

5. Receiving a no-reply email from the embassy informing passport has been received(Ethos).

Delivering Speech through Radio

For example, the NBC radio station(Context) broadcasted American 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt's (Speaker) speech through fireside chats. The president explained (Speech) the new policies directly to the citizens(Audience). Franklin D. Roosevelt was an effective communicator, and his speech created a strong relationship(Effect) between the government and the general people. This situation is the best example of Aristotle's model.

Advertisement on Television

A salesman (Speaker) advertises on Television (Context) to persuade customers (Audience) to sell a laptop at the best price. He delivers a promotional message (Speech) to convince the customers. Finally, the salesman manages to sell some laptops (Effect) through T.V. advertisement. In this context, the audience listens to the speakers without providing feedback. 

Political Speech Physically

Barack Obama (Speaker) delivers a speech to supporters (Audiences) to persuade them to vote for the Democratic Party in the general election (C0ntext) of the United States of America. For example, many voters decide to vote (Effect) for the Democratic Party after listening to the motivational speech.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Aristotle's Model of Communication.

Advantages of Aristotle's Model of Communication

Aristotle emphasised on the speaker's role to convince audience in his model. Therefore, it benefits anyone looking to develop their public speaking abilities. The Aristotelian model states that the speaker needs to be aware of his intended audience. The speakers should prepare their speech based on audiences' socioeconomic status, educational background, etc. 

In a corporate context, managers take three steps: Ethos, Pathos, and logos, to enhance organizational productivity. 

Aristotle's model explains how to obtain more supporters with a persuasive speech on a sports team. 

Moreover, for researchers and students, Aristotle's model serves as a motivating outcome of the systematic study of various aspects. It is also an instructive representation of the communication process that assists in system planning. It represents fresh perspectives and ideas on various topics, including verbal, written, and nonverbal communication.

Disadvantages of the Aristotle Communication Model

The three significant criticisms of Aristotle's model are No Feedback, No Noise, and only Public Speaking Centered.

Criticism of Aristotle model of communication

The most crucial weakness of Aristotle's communication model is that it is a linear communication process. It is considered to be a linear model of one-way communication. It did not include and explain feedback essential for the interactive communication process. Due to the lack of audience feedback and openness in this communication model, the conversation is ineffective.

Additionally, its credibility and usefulness are limited because it is only helpful for public speaking. 

Finally, Aristotle's model shows no concept regarding noise barriers in communication. Noise is an unwanted but paramount element of the communication process.  

Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle

Aristotle described the rhetorical triangle as comprised of three elements: ethos, pathos, and logos. Any written and spoken speech is generated to persuade audiences. So, the writers and speakers should include the three rhetorical components ethos (speaker's credibility and trustworthiness), pathos (emotional appeal), and logos (logical message or information). 

Ethos(Credibility)

Ethos refers to the information's credibility and reliability. It ensures that the information comes from reliable sources and is safe to believe. For example, people will consult with an interior designer for office decoration but not with a lawyer. On the other hand, they will consult with lawyers for legal advice. Ethos ensures the person credibility who delivers the message.

Pathos(Emotion)

Pathos refers to the use of emotional appeal to persuade the audience's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Pathos taps into the audience's emotions, values, and desires, aiming to evoke sympathy, empathy, anger, fear, or excitement. Unlike logos, which appeals to logic, and ethos, which appeals to ethics and credibility, pathos taps into the audience's emotions, aiming to create a strong emotional connection and influence their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

In communication and persuasion, pathos plays a significant role in engaging the audience on a deeper level by eliciting emotions such as empathy, sympathy, anger, fear, or joy. By appealing to these emotions, speakers, writers, or advertisers can make their message more relatable, memorable, and persuasive. For example, in a speech advocating for environmental conservation, a speaker might evoke feelings of empathy by describing the impact of pollution on wildlife, stirring the audience's emotions and inspiring them to take action.

However, it's essential to use pathos ethically and responsibly, ensuring that emotional appeals are genuine.

Logos (Logic)

Logos refers to the use of logical reasoning, facts, evidence, and arguments to support the speaker's position or argument. hence, it appeals to the audience's intellect by presenting rational arguments, data, statistics, examples, and logical deductions.

Conclusion

The five essential elements of Aristotle's model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. Speakers should follow Aristotle's model to influence the audience positively when speaking in public. It is also a crucial model to motivate audiences. Many scholars extended this theory to establish other theories in different contexts. It is the most ancient model that provided communication concepts initially. 

Citation For This Article- APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Aristotle’s Model of Communication Example & Explanation. Newsmoor. https://newsmoor.com/aristotles-model-of-communication-example-explanation-elements
In-text citation
According to new research … (Kobiruzzaman, 2024)
In research from Kobiruzzaman (2024)