Linear Communication Model Examples With Pros and Cons

Linear Communication Model Example Situation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Linear Model of Communication.

Linear Communication

Linear communication refers to one-way communication like reading books or newspapers, watching television, listening radio, and receiving no-reply emails. It is a particular type of communication that excludes receiver feedback. In this context, senders convey messages without expecting feedback from audiences. The receiver cannot respond to the sender immediately. For example, a company publishes a recruitment circular in a newspaper describing the application process. The authority wants to convey messages to applicants without expecting feedback.

Linear Communication Model

The linear communication model refers to the framework that explains the one-way communication process. Many communication systems are one-way directed, including disseminating news through radio. For example, print media spreads emergency news to readers; but readers cannot respond instantly or provide feedback to the authority. Conveying information through the radio, TV, newspaper, and book is an appropriate example of one-way communication. Therefore, many scientists designed linear communication models to explain these one-way communication processes. Linear means one way.

A linear model excludes Feedback, which is a mandatory element for transactional communication. In a communication process, senders transmit info to receivers. Similarly, receivers respond to senders, which is called Feedback. Effective communication occurs when both senders and receivers respond simultaneously. Feedback is an essential element of the communication process. Therefore, linear communication models have both advantages and disadvantages.

Different Between Linear and Transaction Models

The primary difference between the transactional and linear models is- the transactional model includes Feedback, but the linear model excludes it.

Additionally, the transactional theory can explain two-way communication, including face-to-face interaction. In contrast, the linear model can describe only one-way communication, like reading newspapers.

Finally, transactional models are developed from the linear model. The linear models are older than the transactional model.

Linear Communication Model Example Situation

Linear Model of Communication Example

The Four Examples of Linear Communication Models are:

  1. Aristotle Communication Model- 300BC
  2. Lasswell’s Communication Model- 1948
  3. Shannon-Weaver Communication Model-1949
  4. Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model in 1960
Aristotle Communication Model- 300BC

Aristotle's communication model is a well-known example of a linear model of communication. Greek Scientist Aristotle introduced a linear communication model in 300 BC. He designed the model to explain how to provide political and social speech for audiences. The model is focused on the message and audience or receiver mainly. The five critical components of Aristotle's communication model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. This theory does not mention Feedback; hence, it is a linear communication theory.

Aristotle's Model of Communication

Lasswell’s Communication Model

In 1948, Harold Lasswell described a linear communication model with five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. It is another prominent model to illustrate one-way communication.

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Shannon-Weaver Communication Model

The Shannon-Weaver model is the most notable theory in the communication arena for representing communication noise. It is known as the mother of all communication models. In 1949, Shannon and Weaver published this model to explain how signals are transmitted through channels. The six components of the Shannon-Weaver model are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source.

Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication Example

Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model

In 1960, David Berlo developed another linear communication model with four key elements Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver. Therefore, it is known as the SMCR communication model. Berlo describes five more elements under every critical component. For example, Source includes Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture. Additionally, the message comprises Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code. Moreover, the channel contains hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. The receiver includes the same elements as the message sender.

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Linear Communication Examples

The five examples of linear communication are: (1) Reading books and Newspapers, (2) Watching Television, (3) Listening Radio, (4)  Receiving no-reply emails, and (5) Reading Brochures.

Linear Communication Example Situation-1

Reading newspapers is another example of a one-way communication process. The readers can receive the information but cannot respond.

Linear Communication Example Situation-2

For example, Joe Biden, the 46th U.S. president, delivers a speech on CNN after returning from Ukraine. People are watching television to hear the president's statement. He announces $500 million for military support in Ukraine. The speaker is the message's sender, and the audiences are the receiver. The message has been transmitted through the CNN television channel. However, audiences can not respond to the speech instantly. The feedback is not presented in this type of communication; hence, it is a one-way communication process.

Linear Communication Example Situation-3

Listening radio is an example of linear communication because the audience cannot respond. The audience can listen to news, music, and advertisement.

Linear Communication Example Situation-4

A no-reply email is also an example of a linear communication process. The receiver receives the messages in email but cannot reply to them. A no-reply is sent from the company domain email that doesn't receive feedback.

Linear Communication Model Advantages and Disadvantages

The author explains the strengths and weaknesses of the linear model of communication. The linear model has pros and cons for the theoretical and practical implications.

Advantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, the linear communication model is easy to understand and describes the entire process thoroughly. The communication is straightforward and targeted to specific audiences.

Additionally, the linear model of communication was the initial theory that explains the communication process. The interactive and transactional communication models are designed based on linear models.

Moreover, a linear communication model is inevitable to explain the communication process through print media, TV, letter, Fax, and no-reply email.

Disadvantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, linear models do not represent Feedback; therefore, these models are incomplete. It can explain only the one-way communication process, but not two-way interactions. However, feedback is a significant component of interactive and transactional communication.

In addition, linear communication models cannot describe face-to-face communication as the most effective interaction. Nowadays, people prefer transaction communication systems like face-to-face, phone conversations, video conferences, and more. However, linear theories like Aristotle's, Lasswell’s, Shannon-Weaver's, and David Berlo’s SMCR communication model are unable to explain interactive communication.

Moreover, linear communication is inappropriate for problem-solving, bargaining, and dealing. One-way communication creates miscommunication between sender and receiver, sometimes disseminating misleading information.  Linear models are designed to explain the inappropriate communication process that might create misconceptions about the message delivered by senders.

Furthermore, the Linear model distinguishes the sender and receiver in which the sender always send, and the receiver only receives messages. Naturally, in the communication process, senders work as sender and receiver, and receivers also work as receivers and senders of the message.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples With Pros & Cons

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples. Inverted Pyramid Journalism. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Inverted Pyramid.

Inverted Pyramid Style

Inverted Pyramid Style refers to the hierarchical structure of news writing in which essential information is presented before the non-essential info in the news story. According to the Inverted pyramid style, the most essential info goes to the top, following the less important information. Many readers read only the main point of the news mentioned in the news lead section.

The mass media journalist comprehensively follows an inverted pyramid style to write a news story. It assists writers in illustrating the most crucial information on top of the news. This style prioritizes newsworthy information to write a news article, telegraph, blogs, editorial-column, and sometimes feature articles in journalism. It is one of the most effective strategies to grab readers' attention to read the whole story.  Sometimes, authors follow the inverted pyramid formula to review journal articles in analyzing the findings and accuracy of the study. However, researchers identify both advantages and disadvantages of the inverted pyramid style.

Inverted Pyramid History

The inverted pyramid style has been used since the invention of the telegraph in 1844. Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1840. However, the written message was sent for long-distance interaction in 1844. People followed the inverted pyramid style to send breaking news through telegraph to inform others. They put essential info on top, following the non-essential information. Nowadays, journalists follow this inverted triangle style to report stories in the different types of journalism, including print, broadcast, and digital.Inverted Pyramid Style

The inverted pyramid describes a triangle diagram pointing down feature, which is an inverted triangle writing style. The broader part of the pyramid goes top, and the narrow section goes down. It indicates that the essential news goes up to catch the reader's attention.

Inverted Pyramid Model

The inverted pyramid framework contains three segments: the lead: the most newsworthy information; the body: essential details; and the tail: background info.

1. The Lead: Most Newsworthy Information

The Lead includes the most newsworthy information, followed by the 5w and 1h of report writing style. The journalist should answer the six questions (who,  what, where, when, why, and how) to report the story. This information attracts the audience to read the entire story; hence, the writer keeps the most newsworthy words on the top of the news. The Lead segment includes around 30 words and 1-2 paragraphs. A good news lead must enclose 5w's and 1h report writing formula. The readers can stop reading at any time; therefore, journalists put an essential fact on top of the report.

2. The Body: Essential Details

The body represents the detailed information to expand the story. It also extends the news lead to provide more background details. The main issue is illustrated in this section. It is a broader part of the report where details info is explained. The body explains the issue elaborately; therefore, it is a long paragraph.

3. The Tail: Background Info

The tail is the last part of the news report. It includes background and additional information to the story for readers. The background information keeps readers engaged with the news for a long time. The editor cuts unnecessary info from the news bottom.

In journalism, the inverted pyramid style is a strategic story structure where the most important details are presented first. The report's 5w and 1 h questions appear at the story's beginning, followed by supporting details and background information.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples

This example of an inverted pyramid style of news writing presents how to write a news article concisely including the lead, body, and tail. This example also includes a heading, byline, news lead, and conclusion. It is a news writing example for students based on an inverted pyramid framework.

A Colorful Celebration of Malaysia's National Day
By: M M Kobiruzzaman

UPDATED AUGUST 31, 2022, 12:13 AM

The Lead: Most Essential Info

KUALA LUMPUR - Malaysia's 65 National Day parade brought a massive crowd to Dataran Merdeka, Independence Square, located in Kuala Lumpur's capital.  Around 100,000 visitors participated in the celebration on Wednesday (Aug 31) after a two-year break due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Communications and Multimedia Minister Tan Sri Annuar Musa expressed that we are surprised to see overwhelming civilian participation in the celebration. He also mentioned that around 20,000 participants joined the parades to run the show smoothly.

The Body: Details and Essential Info

Prime Minister Datuk Seri Ismail Sabri Yaakob participated in the ‘Ambang Merdeka 2022’ program at Anjung Floria with family members to celebrate the 65th National Day. The Federal Territories Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Shahidan Kassim, Deputy Datuk Seri Jalaluddin Alias, Senior Education Minister Datuk Dr. Radzi Jidin, and Transport Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Wee Ka Siong also joined the program held present 4. At midnight, the national anthem ''Tanggal 31 Ogos''and patriotic songs reverberated through the Dataran Merdeka ground—the civilians shouted to usher the occasion cheerfully.

The 31 August is the official Independence Day in Malaysia, also known as Hari Merdeka. People celebrate this day with respect and joy to commemorate the Declaration of Independence on 31 August 1957. After two years, people celebrate Malaysia's 65th National Day, full of patriotic spirit and amusement.

The most fantastic event was displaying fireworks for five minutes that lit up the Kuala Lumpur sky. The program has been blessed by the clear weather influencing people from all walks of life to cheer the crowd.

Earlier, many famous local artists such as Ella, Haqiem Rusli, Man Bai, and Ameng Spring performed to treat the crowd. The most local point in Kuala Lumpur, including KLCC and Botanical Gardens, was flooded with thousands of people to commemorate National Day.

The Tail: Additional Info

However, the gathering of thousands of people caused heavy traffic surrounding the area of KLCC. Kuala Lumpur police managed to control heavy traffic and ensured participants' safety and security.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Example For Students
Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing

The inverted pyramid is used chiefly globally in traditional print journalism frameworks for news writing. It organizes the news story chronologically and presents the news's main point in the first paragraph, including facts and evidence. The inverted pyramid style of news writing has advantages and disadvantages in news writing.

Advantages of the Inverted Pyramid News Writing Style
Facilitates Editor

The editors can modify the headline easily if it is necessary. The headline should be based on the main point of the story. Hence, the editor can rewrite the headline based on the news lead, and they do not need the whole report. Sometimes, editors cut unnecessary info from the news tail. The inverted pyramid style assists them in modifying news quickly.

Improve Writer Performance

The inverted pyramid style improves the author's news writing performance. It shows them a chronological way to publish news easily. This model applies to all types of news writing, so authors follow the same structure regularly. It certainly saves time to write and deliver news content.

Improve Reader's Comprehension

The reader can easily understand the whole topic while reading the news lead. The inverted pyramid suggests following the 5w and one h writing style, making the feature more attractive to readers.

Represent the Fact

The inverted pyramid news writing style represents the story's facts in chronological sequence. It assists the author in identifying the uninteresting factors and separating them accordingly.

Save Time

The reader can understand the entire news story by reading the news lead so they can decide whether to read it. They can avoid the news if the story is not essential or relevant. So it does not tire the readers.

Improve News Values

The inverted pyramid journalism certainly improves newsworthiness and news values. This model is applicable to all types of journalism, including Personal influence, Controversy, Suitability, Impact, and Bizarre.

Increase Revenue

The inverted pyramid news style encourages readers to narrow down to read the conclusion. The audiences spend more time online on news portals; therefore, it increases revenue.

Disadvantages of the Inverted Pyramid News Writing Style

The inverted pyramid style represents the main ideas on the top of the news; therefore, many light readers read the headline and lead and leave it. It cannot hold the audience on the same report for long.  Hence, the most significant cons of the inverted pyramid style are that it provides the primary information o  top and releases the audience.

No Suspense

This model does not influence to make suspense, but many readers find uncertainty in news stories. It demotivates readers from reading the news due to the suspense.

No Creativity

The writers can follow the same style to write all types of news. So, there is less opportunity to emphasize the author's creativity. It does not influence writers to implement creativity.

Formulaic

It can tell the readers that reports are generated in the same formula. A backward style gives more value to the structure rather than facts.

No Beginning

The story has no beginning or end. It focuses on the basic rules of the inverted pyramid style while writing news rather than the beginning point of the story. It demotivates journalists to write the story from the beginning point.

In conclusion, despite the advantages and disadvantages of the inverted pyramid style of news writing, most journalists, directly and indirectly, utilize the inverted pyramid style for report writing. Also, blogger follows this strategy to write creative, educational, and feature articles.