Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. Servqual Model of Service Quality Questionnaires.

Five Dimensions of Service Quality

In 1985, three American marketing scholars, A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry, established ten service quality dimensions based on customer evaluation. The customers evaluate the services received from organizations. Initially, the authors proposed 10 dimensions to assess service quality. Later, the authors condensed ten dimensions into five and introduced a refined SERVQUAL Model in 1988. 

The ten dimensions include Reliability, Tangibles, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, and Understanding. The five dimensions of service quality refer to the SERVQUAL Model of 5 key service dimensions: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The Servqual model or five service quality dimensions is also known as the Service Quality Model.  SERVQUAL Model is a multi-dimensional research process intended to measure the gap scores between expected and perceptions of service quality of the customers based on five dimensions.

Therefore, the five-service quality dimension model was introduced in 1988 by A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry. The researchers and practitioners use the latest servqual model.

SERVQUAL Model

The Servqual model refers to the five dimensions of service quality that measure the customer’s expectations. The Servqual model classifies the elements or components of service quality known as the five critical service quality dimensions. Although the model developers initially proposed ten service quality dimensions, many experts later finalized only five dimensions of service quality: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The marketing students formed an acronym RATER from the first capital letter of every dimension or component. However, after measuring the gaps, this model recommends the most common causes of service quality problems.

Servqual Model 10 Dimensions

However, Initially, the authors of the Servqual model presented ten dimensions of service quality that are as follows:  Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Knowing the Customer,  also, Tangibles.

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. 5 Dimensions of Service Quality Example are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, Responsiveness. 5 components of service quality. 5 dimensions of service.
Figure 1: 5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model

Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are
  1. Reliability
  2. Assurance
  3. Tangibles
  4. Empathy
  5. Responsiveness.

1. Reliability

Reliability is an essential dimension of the Servqual model that confirms the capacity to provide services exactly, on time, and credibly. Consistency is critical for providing assistance or products to customers on time with error-free conditions. You have to respect the commitment to give your service on time accurately as you promised to them.

For example, the organization sends mail to customers daily.

2. Assurance

Assurance means creating trust and credibility for the customers. It depends on the employee’s technical knowledge, practical communication skills, courtesy, credibility, competency, and professionalism. Therefore, these skills will help the organization gain customer trust and credibility.

The assurance dimension combines four factors: competence, courtesy, credibility, and security. Firstly, competence means having the requisite skills and knowledge.
Courtesy refers to the politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact staff.
Credibility is the trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the staff.
Finally, security means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt.

Example of the assurance dimension

The employee shows respect and is polite to the customers while servicing them.

3. Tangibles

Tangibles represent the physical facilities, employees’ appearance, equipment, machines, and information system. It focuses on facilitating materials and physical facilities.

For example, the organization maintains a clean environment, and staff follows the appropriate dress code.

4. Empathy

Empathy means focusing on the customers attentively to ensure caring and distinguishing service. It is crucial in some countries worldwide to serve every customer individually. It is also a great process to satisfy customers psychologically and increase confidence, trust, and loyalty. The company might lose its customers due to the lack of empathy among the employees; therefore, they need to ensure compassion.

Additionally, empathy is a combination of the following factors:

  • Access (physical and social) – (For example, approachable and ease of contact).
  • Communication – (For instance, keeping customers informed in a language they understand and listening to them).
  • Understanding the customer – ( For example, trying to get to know customers and their specific needs).

For example, they become active listeners when employees speak and recognize regular customers by name.

5. Responsiveness

Responsiveness refers to the eagerness to assist customers with respect and provide quick service to satisfy them. This dimension focuses on the two essential factors, including willingness and promptness. So, you have to ensure that the customer is getting their service quickly without delay and make the customers feel that you are very interested in helping them. Responsiveness will be defined by the length of time when customers wait for the answer or solution. In short, responsiveness solves the customer problem as soon as possible by providing expected information or replacing products.

Example of the Responsiveness Dimension

The employee keeps no customer in the waiting serial and replaces the product quickly before finishing the promised period.

SERVQUAL Survey Questionnaire

The Servqual survey refers to the instruments of the Servqual model. The instrument consists of 22 perception items. The researchers utilize these instruments to evaluate consumers’ thoughts and expectations regarding the quality of service. Therefore, it is also known as a servqual questionnaire for customer satisfaction. The authors of the Servqual model designed 22 perception items also 22 expectation items to set them into five dimensions of service quality. The Servqual model questionnaire assesses the gap score of the company that comes out ideally.

SERVQUAL Model Original Questionnaire

SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire 22 Items

SERVQUAL Questionnaire For Customer Satisfaction
Reliability

1. Gloant-Automobile fixes faults in cars as promised.
2. They are reliable in handling faults in cars.
3. They repair cars right the first time.
4. Their employees fix car faults at the promised time.
5. The charges for services are reasonable.

Assurance

6. The apprentices of Gloant-Automobile create confidence in customers.
7.  They display professionalism in handling faults in cars.
8. Their employees are always polite.
9. They have the knowledge to answer customers’ questions.

Tangibles

10. Gloant-Automobile makes use of modern equipment in repairing cars
11. They have enough parking space for their customers.
12. They provide an environment free from danger.
13. Their employees appear professional in their working place.

Empathy

14. The apprentices of Gloant-Automobile give customers individual attention.
15. They deal with customers in a caring manner.
16. Their employees quickly apologize when they make mistakes.
17. Their employees try to understand customers’ needs.
18. Gloant-Automobile operating hours are convenient for customers.

Responsiveness

19. This company always informs customers when services will be performed.
20. They always serve customers promptly.
21. Gloant-Automobile is always willing to rectify car faults.
22. They are always ready to respond to customers.

Servqual Questionnaire Example With 22 Items
SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire- 22 Scales Items
Figure 2: SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire- 22 Scales Items
Conclusion

In conclusion, the Servqual model has become popular and accepted worldwide because of improving customer service quality. It is a multi-dimensional research system representing a customer satisfaction framework to satisfy customers. Many organizations use this model to achieve goals. The private organization follows the Servqual model to ensure quality services. The 5 Gaps in Service Quality are Knowledge Gap, Policy Gap, Communication Gap, Delivery Gap, and Customer Gap.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/servqual-model-five-key-service-dimensions-servqual-gaps-reasons/

Author: M M Kobiruzzaman

M M Kobiruzzaman is a researcher, lecturer, and academic & creative content writer. He studied for a Master of Management By Research at the School of Business and Economics Faculty, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Previously, he graduated from the Department of Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia. His research interests contained Journalism, Social Media Communication, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Corporate Communication. He has published several journal articles globally. He prefers to impart academic knowledge to other people through content writing. 

52 thoughts on “Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality”

  1. Greetings Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Thank you for sharing this helpful article. May I use your Five Key Service Dimensions of the Servqual model figure 1.5 in a customer service training for our language centre?

    Thanks,

    David

  2. Good day Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    I’m currently working with my research paper regarding SERVQUAL Model. I would like to ask your permission for me to adapt your questionnaires to be used in my research methodology. Rest assured that proper citations and credits will be given.

    Thank you very much!

  3. Good day Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    I’m currently working with my research paper regarding SERVQUAL Model. I would like to ask your permission for me to adapt your questionnaires to be used in my research methodology. Rest assured that proper citations and credits will be given.

    Thank you very much!

  4. Good day Sir,

    May I ask permission to adopt this questionnaire with citation for our research paper? I am hoping for your response Sir and Thank you very much.

  5. Dear Sir/Ma’am
    Good day!
    May I ask permission to include the questionnaire shown in Figure 2 in my research?
    Thank you very much for your approval.

  6. Good day Sir, may I request the permission to use the set of questionnaires with citation as I’m currently conducting a research related to the service quality dimensions. Hope to get your response. Thank you so much!

  7. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Good day!

    My colleagues and I would like to request permission to use your SERVQUAL Survey Questionnaire in our research project titled “Coffee Shop Operation: Assessing the Quality of Service Offered by the Selected Coffee Shop Basis for Customer Satisfaction.”

    Thank you very much, and I am hoping for your response.

  8. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman
    Please may you kindly grant me permission to use your questionnaire for my research on customer satisfaction and evaluation of service quality. Thank you.

  9. Dear Sir/Ma’am
    Good day!
    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for my action research. Thank you very much for your approval.

  10. Good day, Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for our research study entitled “Food Sanitation, Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction.” Thank you very much and I am hoping for your response.

  11. Good day sir. We are currently working on our Thesis about the service quality and our adviser said that your study has a questionnaire related to our topic so I am humbly asking for permission to use your questionnaire on conducting our survey. But, I am assuring you sir that we will properly cite your work. thank you very much and hoping for your positive reply.

  12. Dear sir,
    I would like your permission to use your questionnaire to assess the SERQUAL model questionnaire as an instrument in my research study. May I ask your permission for use it.!
    Thank you.!
    S.M.I.S.Samarathunga

  13. Good day Mr. Kobiruzzaman!

    I’m currently working with a group on a research paper regarding the customer satisfaction of a theme park’s service quality. With that being said, may I formally request to adapt your questionnaires to be used in our research methodology. We assure you that proper citations and credits will be given.

    1. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman, M. M., I would also like to ask your formally permission to use the questionnaires you create for my thesis. I am now in the middle of finishing my thesis for Tourism Magister Degree. Rest assure that I will include the proper citation, thank you sir.

  14. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Warm greetings!
    This is to formally ask permission to use this questionnaire for my research study which is very similar to yours. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct my study. Rest assured citation will be included. I am hoping for your immediate and positive response. Thank you very much.

  15. Good day Sir! I’m Jerlyn Enriquez, a third-year college student at the University of Perpetual Help System Dalta-Calamba Campus. We are now conducting a research for our requirements on the Program Tourism Management, and our study is somehow related to yours. I’m respectfully requesting permission to use a copy of your questionnaires to be used in our research. I definitely await your response. Thank you so much

  16. Good day Sir! I’m Jerlyn Enriquez, a third-year college student at the University of Perpetual Help System Dalta-Calamba Campus. We are now conducting a research for our requirements on the Program Tourism Management, and our study is somehow related to yours. I’m respectfully requesting permission to use a copy of your questionnaires to be used in our research. I definitely await your response. Thank you so much.

  17. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman

    Good day!

    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for our case study entitled Evaluating customer satisfaction on the services provided during post pandemic: A case study of selected restaurant in Robinsons Galleria, Ortigas avenue Quezon, city. and will include citations.

    Thank you so much I am hoping for your approval.

  18. Good day! Mr. Kobiruzzman, I’m Kenneth R. Villajos, a third-year college student of Sto. Tomas College of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology. Our school is located at the Municipality of Sto. Tomas, province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. We are currently making our research right now for our study and the title of our study is somehow related to your study. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct our study about Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction of Food Industry. It will be a great opportunity for us if you allowed it. Hoping for your response. Thank you so much.

  19. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Warm greetings!
    This is to formally ask permission to use this questionnaire for my research study entitled, The Customer Service Satisfaction Towards Binalbagan Water District Frontline Services. Rest assured citation will be included. I am hoping for your immediate and positive response. Thank you very much.

    Angie Blaise Cañon

      1. Good day! Mr. Kobiruzzman, I’m Kim. I’m currently making my research right now for my research study and the title of the study is somehow related to your study. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct my study. It will be a great opportunity for me if you allowed it. Hoping for your response. Thank you so much.

      2. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

        Good day!

        We are the college students from Santo Tomas College of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology, Philippines writing our research paper.
        We would like to ask your permission to adapt your questionnaires to be used in our research study. It will be a great opportunity for us if you allowed it. Hoping for your response. Thank you so much.

  20. Greetings, Sir Kobiruzzaman!
    May I ask permission to include the model shown in Figure 1 in my research?
    Thank you very much and will await your approval.

  21. Hello Sir,

    Asking for your permission to use some of the questions you have in my study.

    thank you and best regards.

  22. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Good day!

    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for our research study entitled “The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction of Selected Cafes in Silang, Cavite.” Thank you very much and I am hoping for your response.

  23. Dear Sir/Ma’am
    Good day!
    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for my action research. Thank you very much for your approval.

  24. Dear Sir/Madam,
    Do you mind provide the citation of figure 1 “Five dimensions of service quality -SERQAUL model? I want to use it in my manuscript.
    Thanks a lot,
    Xia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.