5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. Servqual Model of Service Quality Questionnaires.
Five Dimensions of Service Quality
In 1985, three American marketing scholars, A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry, established ten service quality dimensions based on customer evaluation. The customers evaluate the services received from organizations. Initially, the authors proposed 10 dimensions to assess service quality. Later, the authors condensed ten dimensions into five and introduced a refined SERVQUAL Model in 1988.
The ten dimensions include Reliability, Tangibles, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, and Understanding. The five dimensions of service quality refer to the SERVQUAL Model of 5 key service dimensions: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The Servqual model or five service quality dimensions is also known as the Service Quality Model. SERVQUAL Model is a multi-dimensional research process intended to measure the gap scores between expected and perceptions of service quality of the customers based on five dimensions.
Therefore, the five-service quality dimension model was introduced in 1988 by A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry. The researchers and practitioners use the latest servqual model.
The Servqual model refers to the five dimensions of service quality that measure the customer’s expectations. The Servqual model classifies the elements or components of service quality known as the five critical service quality dimensions. Although the model developers initially proposed ten service quality dimensions, many experts later finalized only five dimensions of service quality: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The marketing students formed an acronym RATER from the first capital letter of every dimension or component. However, after measuring the gaps, this model recommends the most common causes of service quality problems.
Servqual Model 10 Dimensions
However, Initially, the authors of the Servqual model presented ten dimensions of service quality that are as follows: Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Knowing the Customer, also, Tangibles.
Dimensions of Service Quality
The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are
Reliability is an essential dimension of the Servqual model that confirms the capacity to provide services exactly, on time, and credibly. Consistency is critical for providing assistance or products to customers on time with error-free conditions. You have to respect the commitment to give your service on time accurately as you promised to them.
For example, the organization sends mail to customers daily.
Assurance means creating trust and credibility for the customers. It depends on the employee’s technical knowledge, practical communication skills, courtesy, credibility, competency, and professionalism. Therefore, these skills will help the organization gain customer trust and credibility.
The assurance dimension combines four factors: competence, courtesy, credibility, and security. Firstly, competence means having the requisite skills and knowledge.
Courtesy refers to the politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact staff.
Credibility is the trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the staff.
Finally, security means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt.
Example of the assurance dimension
The employee shows respect and is polite to the customers while servicing them.
Tangibles represent the physical facilities, employees’ appearance, equipment, machines, and information system. It focuses on facilitating materials and physical facilities.
For example, the organization maintains a clean environment, and staff follows the appropriate dress code.
Empathy means focusing on the customers attentively to ensure caring and distinguishing service. It is crucial in some countries worldwide to serve every customer individually. It is also a great process to satisfy customers psychologically and increase confidence, trust, and loyalty. The company might lose its customers due to the lack of empathy among the employees; therefore, they need to ensure compassion.
Additionally, empathy is a combination of the following factors:
- Access (physical and social) – (For example, approachable and ease of contact).
- Communication – (For instance, keeping customers informed in a language they understand and listening to them).
- Understanding the customer – ( For example, trying to get to know customers and their specific needs).
For example, they become active listeners when employees speak and recognize regular customers by name.
Responsiveness refers to the eagerness to assist customers with respect and provide quick service to satisfy them. This dimension focuses on the two essential factors, including willingness and promptness. So, you have to ensure that the customer is getting their service quickly without delay and make the customers feel that you are very interested in helping them. Responsiveness will be defined by the length of time when customers wait for the answer or solution. In short, responsiveness solves the customer problem as soon as possible by providing expected information or replacing products.
Example of the Responsiveness Dimension
The employee keeps no customer in the waiting serial and replaces the product quickly before finishing the promised period.
SERVQUAL Survey Questionnaire
The Servqual survey refers to the instruments of the Servqual model. The instrument consists of 22 perception items. The researchers utilize these instruments to evaluate consumers’ thoughts and expectations regarding the quality of service. Therefore, it is also known as a servqual questionnaire for customer satisfaction. The authors of the Servqual model designed 22 perception items also 22 expectation items to set them into five dimensions of service quality. The Servqual model questionnaire assesses the gap score of the company that comes out ideally.
SERVQUAL Model Original Questionnaire
SERVQUAL Questionnaire For Customer Satisfaction
1. Gloant-Automobile fixes faults in cars as promised.
6. The apprentices of Gloant-Automobile create confidence in customers.
10. Gloant-Automobile makes use of modern equipment in repairing cars
14. The apprentices of Gloant-Automobile give customers individual attention.
19. This company always informs customers when services will be performed.
Servqual Questionnaire Example With 22 Items
In conclusion, the Servqual model has become popular and accepted worldwide because of improving customer service quality. It is a multi-dimensional research system representing a customer satisfaction framework to satisfy customers. Many organizations use this model to achieve goals. The private organization follows the Servqual model to ensure quality services. The 5 Gaps in Service Quality are Knowledge Gap, Policy Gap, Communication Gap, Delivery Gap, and Customer Gap.
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
|Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/servqual-model-five-key-service-dimensions-servqual-gaps-reasons/