Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. Servqual Model of Service Quality, also RATER Model. The Five Dimensions of Service Quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, also Responsiveness.

Five Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality refers to the SERVQUAL Model of 5 key service dimensions, such as Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The Servqual model or five service quality dimensions is also known as the Service Quality Model.  SERVQUAL Model is a multi-dimensional research process intended to measure the gap scores between expected and perceptions of service quality of the customers based on five dimensions. The three American marketing scholars A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry produced and implemented this model.

Therefore, the five service quality dimension model is also known as the SERVQUAL Model or RATER model, introduced between 1983 and 1988.

SERVQUAL Model

The Servqual model refers to the five dimensions of service quality that measure the customer’s expectations. The Servqual model classifies the elements or components of service quality known as the five critical service quality dimensions. Although the model developers initially proposed ten service quality dimensions, many experts later finalized only five dimensions of service quality: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness. The marketing students formed an acronym RATER from the first capital letter of every dimension or component. However, after measuring the gaps, this model recommends the most common causes of service quality problems.

Servqual Model 10 Dimensions

However, Initially, the introducers of the Servqual model proposed ten dimensions of service quality that are as follows:  Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Knowing the Customer,  also, Tangibles.

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. 5 Dimensions of Service Quality Example are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, Responsiveness. 5 components of service quality. 5 dimensions of service.
Figure 1: 5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model

Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are
  1. Reliability
  2. Assurance
  3. Tangibles
  4. Empathy
  5. Responsiveness.

1. Reliability

Reliability is an essential dimension of the Servqual model that confirms the capacity to provide services exactly, on time, and credibly. Consistency is a critical factor for providing assistance or product to the customers on time with error-free conditions. You have to respect the commitment to give your service on time accurately as you promised to them.

For example, the organization is sending mail to the customers every day on time.

2. Assurance

Assurance means creating trust and credibility for the customers. It depends on the employee’s technical knowledge, practical communication skills, courtesy, credibility, competency, and professionalism. Therefore, these skills will help the organization gain customer trust and credibility.

The assurance dimension combines four factors: competence, courtesy, credibility, and security. Firstly, competence means having the requisite skills and knowledge.
Courtesy refers to the politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact staff.
Credibility is the trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the staff.
Finally, security means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt.

Example of the assurance dimension

The employee is showing respect and being polite to the customers while servicing them.

3. Tangibles

Tangibles represent the physical facilities, employees’ appearance, equipment, machines, and information system. It focuses on facilitating materials and physical facilities.

For example, the organization maintains a clean environment, and staff follows the appropriate dress code.

4. Empathy

Empathy means focusing on the customers attentively to ensure caring and distinguishing service. It is an essential attitude in some countries in the world to serve every customer individually. It is also a great process to satisfy customers psychologically and increase confidence, trust, and loyalty. The company might lose its customers due to the lack of empathy among the employees; therefore, they need to ensure compassion.

Additionally, empathy is a combination of the following factors:

  • Access (physical and social) – (For example, approachable and ease of contact).
  • Communication – (For instance, keeping customers informed in a language they understand and listening to them).
  • Understanding the customer – ( For example, making an effort to get to know customers and their specific needs).

For example, they are active listeners when customers speak and recognize regular customers by name.

5. Responsiveness

Responsiveness refers to the eagerness to assist customers with respect and provide quick service to satisfy. This dimension focuses on the two essential factors, including willingness and promptness. So, you have to ensure that the customer is getting their service quickly without delay and make the customers feel that you are very interested in helping them. Responsiveness will be defined by the length of time when customers wait for the answer or solution. In short, responsiveness solves the customer problem as soon as possible by providing expected information or replacing products.

Example of the Responsiveness Dimension

The employee keeps no customer in waiting serial and replaces the product quickly before finishing the promised period.

SERVQUAL Survey Questionnaire

The Servqual survey refers to the instruments of the Servqual model. The instrument consists of 22 perceptions items. The researchers utilize these instrument questionnaires to evaluate consumers’ thoughts and expectations regarding the quality of service. Therefore, it is also known as a servqual questionnaire for customer satisfaction. The developers of the Servqual model designed 22 perceptions items also 22 expectation items to set them into five dimensions of service quality. The Servqual model questionnaire assesses the gap score of the company that comes out ideally.

SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire Example
SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire- 22 Scales Items
Figure 2: SERVQUAL Model Questionnaire- 22 Scales Items
Conclusion

In conclusion, the Servqual Model or Service Quality Model has become very popular and worldwide accepted because of increasing the customers’ service quality. It is a multi-dimensional research system that represents a customer satisfaction framework to satisfy customers and stakeholders. The 5 Gaps in Service Quality are Knowledge Gap, Policy Gap, Communication Gap, Delivery Gap, and Customer Gap.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022, January 6). Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/servqual-model-five-key-service-dimensions-servqual-gaps-reasons/

27 thoughts on “Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality”

  1. Good day Mr. Kobiruzzaman!

    I’m currently working with a group on a research paper regarding the customer satisfaction of a theme park’s service quality. With that being said, may I formally request to adapt your questionnaires to be used in our research methodology. We assure you that proper citations and credits will be given.

    1. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman, M. M., I would also like to ask your formally permission to use the questionnaires you create for my thesis. I am now in the middle of finishing my thesis for Tourism Magister Degree. Rest assure that I will include the proper citation, thank you sir.

  2. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Warm greetings!
    This is to formally ask permission to use this questionnaire for my research study which is very similar to yours. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct my study. Rest assured citation will be included. I am hoping for your immediate and positive response. Thank you very much.

  3. Good day Sir! I’m Jerlyn Enriquez, a third-year college student at the University of Perpetual Help System Dalta-Calamba Campus. We are now conducting a research for our requirements on the Program Tourism Management, and our study is somehow related to yours. I’m respectfully requesting permission to use a copy of your questionnaires to be used in our research. I definitely await your response. Thank you so much

  4. Good day Sir! I’m Jerlyn Enriquez, a third-year college student at the University of Perpetual Help System Dalta-Calamba Campus. We are now conducting a research for our requirements on the Program Tourism Management, and our study is somehow related to yours. I’m respectfully requesting permission to use a copy of your questionnaires to be used in our research. I definitely await your response. Thank you so much.

  5. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman

    Good day!

    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for our case study entitled Evaluating customer satisfaction on the services provided during post pandemic: A case study of selected restaurant in Robinsons Galleria, Ortigas avenue Quezon, city. and will include citations.

    Thank you so much I am hoping for your approval.

  6. Good day! Mr. Kobiruzzman, I’m Kenneth R. Villajos, a third-year college student of Sto. Tomas College of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology. Our school is located at the Municipality of Sto. Tomas, province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. We are currently making our research right now for our study and the title of our study is somehow related to your study. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct our study about Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction of Food Industry. It will be a great opportunity for us if you allowed it. Hoping for your response. Thank you so much.

  7. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Warm greetings!
    This is to formally ask permission to use this questionnaire for my research study entitled, The Customer Service Satisfaction Towards Binalbagan Water District Frontline Services. Rest assured citation will be included. I am hoping for your immediate and positive response. Thank you very much.

    Angie Blaise Cañon

      1. Good day! Mr. Kobiruzzman, I’m Kim. I’m currently making my research right now for my research study and the title of the study is somehow related to your study. I am humbly asking permission to have a copy of your questionnaires to conduct my study. It will be a great opportunity for me if you allowed it. Hoping for your response. Thank you so much.

  8. Greetings, Sir Kobiruzzaman!
    May I ask permission to include the model shown in Figure 1 in my research?
    Thank you very much and will await your approval.

  9. Hello Sir,

    Asking for your permission to use some of the questions you have in my study.

    thank you and best regards.

  10. Dear Mr. Kobiruzzaman,

    Good day!

    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for our research study entitled “The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction of Selected Cafes in Silang, Cavite.” Thank you very much and I am hoping for your response.

  11. Dear Sir/Ma’am
    Good day!
    May I ask permission to use this questionnaire for my action research. Thank you very much for your approval.

  12. Dear Sir/Madam,
    Do you mind provide the citation of figure 1 “Five dimensions of service quality -SERQAUL model? I want to use it in my manuscript.
    Thanks a lot,
    Xia

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