Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet

Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, and Communist Soviet Theory.  Also, 4 Theories of journalism and mass communication.

Four Theories of the Press

The four theories of the press are authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and communist soviet theory. In 1956, three scholars, Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson, published the Four Theories of the Press Book. It is also known as the four theories of the Press by Wilbur Schramm 1956. The Four Theories of the Press Book describes precisely the four theories of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, and Communist Soviet Theory.

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What are the Four Theories of the Press?
The 4 Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory

Four theories of the press

1. Authoritarian Theory of the Press

The authoritarian theory explains that the government authority directly controls the communication outlets. The government controls the press, information, and communication systems directly and indirectly (Siebert, Peterson, & Schramm, 1956). Sometimes, the government assigns authority to regulate the whole process of the information and communication system in the country. The agency controls the press thoroughly on behalf of the government. For example, the Korean Central News Agency controls the mass media outlets in North Korea.

The press cannot work independently. So, it publishes news and information that the government wants to know about the public in the country.  The authority set the code of conduct for the news agencies. Therefore, the news publishing outlets must need to follow the rules and regulations set by the management. The authority also has the right to provide a license and cancel it. Usually, they revoke the license when the media violate the policies imposed by the government. The media practitioners follow the government’s instructions thoroughly to publish the news.

Authoritarian Theory of the Press Example

During the second world war, Hitler controlled the news media in Germany; hence, no press could publish news without the authority’s permission.

authoritarian theory of the press example in Afghanistan in 2022 when Taliban Took over the power

For example, in 2021, the Taliban took over power in Afghanistan, and the management excessively controls all media. Similarly, in Myanmar, the army chief Min Aung Hlaing seized power in 2021.

For example, in North Korea, Myanmar, and Afghanistan

2. Libertarian theory

Libertarian theory refers to the freedom of the press to disseminate information (Siebert et al., 1956). Therefore, it is also known as the normative theory of mass communication. The mass media outlets are entirely free to publish any ethical news and information. The press works as the watchdog of the community and society in the country.

John Milter was the first introducer of the libertarian press concept. Firstly, In the 1700s, authorities applied the libertarian theory of the press in the USA. After that, and in the 1900s, Europe accepted it. As per the Libertarian press, human beings have the right to know the accurate information published by mass media outlets. The press should disseminate the actual news to society’s people.

Sometimes Wiki leaks platform publishes confidential documents to the public. Therefore, the government of many countries around the world does not allow to practice libertarian press system, and it can impact the political parties to form the government.

Libertarian Theory of the Press Examples

Firstly, mass media and communication systems are free from the government to publish news. The government does not control the press when they disseminate information, even though they criticize its activities. Therefore, journalists and media practitioners manage the press directly.

For example, Canada, Switzerland, and New Zealand

3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory explains that the press media do not need to take permission from the government to distribute news and information; however, they think about society when publishing news. Therefore, the social responsibility theory of the press has linked the libertarian and authoritarian theories. It lies between those two theories. The media are somewhat free from the government but controlled by the people of the country’s society.

Social Responsibility Theory of the Press Example

In mid 20th century, many countries applied the social responsibility theory incorporating “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in the United States in 1949. Anyone can express their opinion through mass media. Additionally, mass media play an essential role in raising a voice against discrimination and corruption.

For example, In the USA, UK, and India

4. Communist Soviet Theory

Communist Soviet Theory describes that the ministry of the respective government controls the press media, but they are free to work for the society. The government regulates and guides the mass media outlets for the benefit of the people. They can publish any news without taking permission from the authority, but the government agency controls the entire system at the end of the day.

Communist Soviet Theory Example

The Soviet Union was reconstructed with the new norms based on the Marxist-Leninist beliefs in the 1917th revolution. Communist Soviet Theory is also known as Soviet Media Theory.

This theory is generated from authoritarian theory but contradicted by the libertarian theory. The government agency owns the press media, but they are free to work for society. Finally, the government set official media to deliver the information to society.

For example, In Russia, China, and Cuba

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022). Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/four-theories-of-the-press-authoritarian-libertarian-social-responsibility-theory/
Reference
Siebert, F., Peterson, T. B., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do (Vol. 10). University of Illinois Press.

 

Types of Leads Writing in Journalism With Examples

 Types of Leads in Journalism With Examples. Types of Leads in News Story Writing.

Different Types of Journalism
Lead Writing- News Lead Writing
What is News Lead?

News lead is the first and second paragraphs of a news article. Usually, a good lead attracts readers to read the feature’s body by highlighting the news’s central issue. An attractive news lead always increases the news value.

How to become a Good News Lead Writer?

A good news writer always follows the 5W and 1H of the report writing strategy in journalism to cover all issues related to the news headlines.

Good News Lead Examples

A Good Lead must follow the 5W and 1H rules of news writing.

FORMULA WHO does WHAT,  WHEN, WHERE, WHY, and HOW
Who = subject, people name, organization name
What = name of activity and event
When = day, yesterday, tomorrow
Where = location name
Why = background of the event, purpose, cause
How = process, detail of the event, audiences
What is the Long of a Sentence for Lead Writing?

According to Mansor (2010), The length of a sentence should not exceed 25 words. On the other hand, according to Mencher (2010), The size of a sentence should not exceed 35 words.

Types of Leads in Journalism

The two types of leads in Journalism are:

  1. Traditional Lead (5W1H)
  2. Alternative Leads (10 Types of Lead in Journalism)
Types of Leads Wrtiting
Two Types of Leads Writing in Journalism
Traditional Lead

The traditional Lead is Also known as the primary lead. It is constructed from 6 elements: who, what, when, where, why, and how. But, usually, the journalist will start with Who and What.  However, you can begin and end with any of the six elements.

Who-Lead News Writing Example
Headline Myanmar ties the Young Tigers
Lead 1 The country’s under-22 squad (B-22) showed a lacklustre performance in the opening match of Group A of the 2019 SEA Games when they only won a 1-1 draw against Myanmar just now.
Lead 2 The Young Tigers looked shaky early in the first half as they struggled to adapt on the surface of a synthetic pitch at the Rizal Memorial Stadium, Philippines.
What Lead News Writing Example
Headline Additional subjects follow the inclinations of the students
Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR-The Secondary School Standard Curriculum (KSSM) (Upper Secondary), which will come into effect next January, aims to improve the flow of Science and Literature in the existing education system.
Lead 2 Deputy Director-General of Education (Policy and Curriculum Sector), Dr Habibah Abdul Rahman, said Form Four students could choose four packages containing a combination of core and elective subjects in the new school term.
Alternative Leads in Journalism

Alternative Leads include Staccato Lead, Question Lead, Narrative Lead, Contras Lead, Citation Lead, Straight lead, Scene lead, Anecdote lead, Significant detail lead, and Direct address lead in journalism.

1. Staccato Lead
  • It is a dot sign in the music
  • It’s mean- separately read
  • It’s like a dot, meaning the end of the sentence
 Example of Staccato
Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: There is no Raya shirt or any celebration, and this year’s festival doesn’t seem to mean anything to them. For the past two months, this hospital has been their second home.
Lead 2 “Every day, we just shed tears thinking of Raef who risked his life because his health condition is often uncertain,” said Noraini Jaafar, 37, mother of four-year-old Raef Uqael Mohd Rosli.
2. Question Lead

Write in a question sentence (like the question to the audience). However, the audience did not necessarily prepare the answer.

Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: Are you willing to wait as early as 8 am to buy various items at a discount of more than 70 per cent in preparation for Aid ul Fitr, even though Sogo shopping malls in the capital are only open at 10 am?
Lead 2 Should we bring the family shopping in the capital in the morning?
3. Narrative or Descriptive Lead

The situation/picture of the event

Example of Narrative or Descriptive Lead in News Writing
Lead 1 Seremban: The suspicious actions of two women in black hijab rushing out of a supermarket were answered when they were suspected of stealing various dishes at a supermarket in Seremban 2 yesterday.
Lead 2 Security guards sniffed the act of the two suspects in their 30s stealing the set of dishes before arresting them.
4. Contrast Lead

Opposite with the actor and event

Example of Contrast Lead in News Writing

Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR, July 26-The illegal gambling activities that have seemed ‘silent’ in recent months in public business premises are still happening in exclusive places, including luxury bungalows, condominiums, and private clubs.
Lead 2 President of the Malaysian Consumer Protection Association, Datuk Mohd. Firdaus Abdullah said the activity was difficult to detect by the authorities because it used a secure location and only involved invitations.
5. Citation Lead

Statement from the sources (talk/seminar/press conference). I am starting with the “symbol. For example, the lead begins with a quotation mark.

Lead 1 Kuala Terengganu: “He told me to take care of myself and educate my children well before he ‘left’,” said Salihana Zawawi, 29, wife of Mohd Zawawi Seman, 36, who was found floating in the waters of Pulau Kapas, Marang after disappearing at sea together. Three other brothers in Kuala Kemaman on June 21.
Lead 2 Mohd Zawawi’s body was found floating by fishermen at 5 pm yesterday before his body was taken by the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement (APMM) to the Pulau Kambing jetty and handed over to the Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital (HSNZ) Forensic Unit.
6. A straight lead or summary lead

A straight lead presents the summary of the story, and it shows the news outcome instantly. It gives the outline or a gist of the whole episode or article for readers who do not have a lot of time to sit and read can glance through actual headlines of the day.

Example of a straight lead

Kuala Lumpur: Celebrity entrepreneur Noor Neelofa Mohd Noor and her Islamic televangelist husband, Haris Ismail, have repeatedly come under police investigation after their alleged violations of the movement control order (MCO) made headlines.

7. A Scene Lead

A scene lead starts a story with an introduction and influences the readers to read the whole story.

For example:

Johor Bahru: Security guards are not scared of any unwanted situation of their responsibility.

8. Anecdote lead

It tells a short story to explain the whole story. This type of lead is used to describe a long story.

For example,

Penang: For the two-week lockdown, which starts on June 1, most businesses and services in Sabah, except petrol stations, hospitals, and central and wholesale markets, will be allowed to operate from 7 am to 7 pm daily.

9. Significant Detail Lead

A significant detail lead opens the story by focusing on a concrete detail that symbolizes the central theme.

For Example,

It was neither his family member nor friends who stole the politician’s car yesterday night.

10. Direct Address Lead

A direct-address lead speaks directly to the reader, using the second person. It addresses the reader directly as ‘you’. It enhances the interest of the reader as it directly talks to them.

Example: “You might not get relief from the harsh winds as the weather will be the same for the next ten days or more.