Types of Journalism: 21 Different Types of Journalism

Types of Journalism- 21 Different Types of Journalism are Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism & Digital Journalism. Journalism Categories. Types of Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

Journalism

Journalism is a combined process of collecting, processing, and disseminating information through print, electronic, digital, or online media. Print media are printed publications such as books, newspapers, magazines, billboards, etc. Electronic media in journalism are mass media such as telephone, television, and radio. Digital media are internet-based outlets such as websites, blogs, and social media. Journalists are the people who collect, analyze, process, and distribute information via media.

News Values in Journalism
Journalism Types Diagram

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Types of Journalism

Types of journalism refer to the journalism categories or kinds of journalism. The three most common kinds of journalism are print, broadcast, and online.

Different Types of Journalism
  1. Print Journalism
  2. Broadcast Journalism
  3. Digital Journalism.

Journalism differs into three categories: Print, Broadcast, and Digital.

1. Print Journalism

Print journalism is the process of news reporting through print media such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Newspapers are the most significant print outlet to publish diverse types of news together. A newspaper has many spaces to disseminate different types of news; for example, national, international, editorial, advertisement, and sports. The print media authority assigns expert journalists for each space. Print media is a journalism category for publishing massive amounts of information to the audience. 

Example of Print Journalism

For example, print journalism includes newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, and academic journals. It denotes printed documents that convey information.

Newspaper Print Journalism
Example of Print Journalism

21 Types of Print Journalism

The 21 types of print journalism are advocacy journalism, agriculture journalism, arts journalism, celebrity journalism, crime journalism, defense journalism, economic journalism, editorial journalism, education journalism, environmental journalism, feature journalism, freelance journalism, opinion journalism, investigative journalism, lifestyle journalism, photojournalism, political journalism, sports journalism, tabloid journalism, comics journalism, and watchdog journalism. The author does not acknowledge yellow journalism as a part of journalism because it is the malpractice of journalism. 

1. Advocacy Journalism

Advocacy journalism is the process of reporting news from a non-objective viewpoint. It refers to a common type of journalism that combines reporting with a social or political viewpoint. The reports are generated by advocacy journalists dealing with social events, corruption, and corporate and government policy. This report appears as a potential jolt for the audience. Somewhat it is another type of investigative journalism. Advocacy journalists practice journalism from an ideological viewpoint to support the nation and society.

For example, “Vaccination better way to combat COVID-19 than lockdown.”

2. Agriculture Journalism

Agriculture journalism is a genre in which the journalist collects agriculture-related data and processes them to publish as informative information through mass media. It compares the traditional and new ways of cultivation. It also includes the challenges of the agriculture sector of the country.

For example, “Canadian farmers produce organic vegetables.”

3. Arts Journalism

Art journalism refers to the common type of journalism in which journalists analyze and report arts events such as theatre, architecture, movies, drama, visual illustration, music, and so more. It discusses traditional events of the community, society, country, and sub-continent areas. The art journalists focus on the artistic features.

For example, “New art hub for Bournemouth.”

4. Celebrity Journalism

Celebrity journalism is the category of journalism that covers events related to celebrities such as sportspeople, royal family people, singers, T.V. stars, and opera stars.

For example, “Jennifer Lopez Goes From Business to Pleasure in Two Dramatically Different Looks.

5. Crime Journalism

Crime journalism refers to covering sensational news stories related to offensive incidents in society. It is mainly associated with wrongdoing issues related to police, victims, and criminals. It is also part of objective and investigative journalism. Crime journalism is also known as crime news reporting; sometimes, it includes taking the interview of the crime stories. The journalist keeps a good relationship with the police, lawyer, and admin officer to get the news quickly. Crime events are crucial issues that add news value in journalism; therefore, journalists are interested in reporting those events. 

For example, “Haiti President Jovenel Moise killed.”

6. Defense Journalism

Defense journalism refers to specialized journalism covering events related to the Army and Navy. It is an exceptional type of journalism that builds the relationship between media and militaries. Defense journalist gets special training to report war news from the spot. Usually, journalists write articles and generate content regarding military events and information to entertain soldiers. Defense journalists should know military history, rules and regulations, languages, and international relations.

For example, “the U.S. troops return from Afghanistan.”

7. Economic Journalism

Economic journalism is a significant type of journalism that covers the country’s financial issues, events, systems, and policies. It also includes an analytical report and comparative analysis of the financial state of the country. The reporters must have good knowledge of the economy in the country to report these types of news. The businessmen are the fundamental readers of this column. The journalists collect information by interviewing the finance manager, owner, investor, and company employee.

For example, “Lockdown hit the economy during the the Eid ul Adha Festival.”

8. Editorial Journalism

Editorial journalism refers to a genre of journalism where the chief editor expresses the opinion logically and ethically. In this respect, journalists play an important role in shaping public opinion by providing rational arguments. Although it is similar to opinion journalism, it is fixed only for editors to provide logical opinions. The editorial contents must include the news leads, body, and summary.

For example, “Effectiveness of the movement control order in Malaysia.”

 9. Education Journalism

Education journalism deals with covering any news related to the Department of education. It includes news related to the development of the education system. On the other hand, it also shows the discrimination that occurred in the education sector. The prime focus of the education journalist is to raise social awareness among students to get their rights properly. The educators and students are the main readers of this column. Additionally, students, teachers, and researchers become education journalists.

For example, “Education Ministry advises conducting online classes until 2022 in Malaysia.”

10. Environment Journalism

Environment journalism is reporting environmental issues, such as natural disasters, climate change, and global warming. Disaster journalism is one of the types of environment journalism because it includes news related to natural calamities and disaster management. Environment news covers natural conditions and calamities such as water layers, deforestation, global warming, floods, etc. It also includes the casualties and infrastructural damages. The reporters need to ensure safety while covering the news from the spot. It represents the victim’s wound that affects people’s emotions. The report also shows how the international and national disaster management authority plays its role in rescuing the people from the affected areas.

For example, “Cyclone hits Bangladesh and death toll rises to 200”.

11. Feature Journalism

Feature journalism means producing and publishing non-fiction articles dealing with events, issues, and trends. The aim of feature articles is not only to entertain but also to educate people. Feature journalism is also known as news feature article writing. The most common news feature articles are Personality Features, How-To Feature, Reviews Feature, Travelogue Features Article, Sports Features, and Obituary Features. Travel journalism includes travel articles and travelogue features.

For example, “3 idiots Film Review.”

Feature journalism in Print Journalism
Sports Feature Journalism in Print Media
12. Freelance Journalism

Freelance journalism is the process of generating informative content and selling them to media organizations. It is one kind of contract work; journalists complete newspapers, magazines, and commercial organizations. The content might be related to fashion, sports, products, and environments. Nowadays, many freelance journalists work to promote commercial products. Additionally, some of them are involved in investigative journalism.

For example, “How to earn money from Facebook.”

13. Opinion Journalism

Opinion journalism means publishing an author’s opinion regarding an issue. The author has good academic and or practical knowledge of the subjects. The content is a piece of article that is intended to clarify the issues elaborately.

For example, “The Importance of artificial intelligence in digital business.”

14. Investigative Journalism

Investigative journalism refers to a genre of journalism in which the journalist investigates a single case of interest, such as discrimination, corruption, wrongdoing, and critical crimes. An investigative journalist might spend a week, month, and year analyzing and reporting the news. They scrutinize the information thoroughly to identify the actual people behind the crimes or occurrences.

For example, “September 11 attract: who and why.”

15. Lifestyle Journalism

Lifestyle journalism is the process of reporting events related to people’s lifestyles such as food, travel, cooking, eating habits, yoga, home decoration, gardening, leisure, hobby, music, fashion, etc. It is one of the favorite types of journalism for the young generation. Lifestyle journalism has become more popular in recent decades. It provides tips and tricks for leading a life with happiness and avoiding common problems relevant to lifestyle. 

For example, “Vogue brings new fashion at shop in 2021.”

16. Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a specific form of journalism that describes an event, issue, conflict, or story. A proverb says that a photo conveys more information than a thousand words. Photojournalism is a significant process of conveying emotions and stories via photos. It is an essential element of print journalism.

The most common types of photojournalism are spot news, general news, personality, illustration, pictorial photojournalism, and so more.

Photojournalism in Print media
Illustration Photojournalism in Print Media
 17. Political Journalism

Political journalism is a form of journalism in which journalists publish political news. The political news can be local or international. It presents deep information regarding democracy, royal families, elections, dictatorship, and so more. Political journalism reveals critical information about civil government how they rule the country. It also talks about the regional and international political powers. Political journalists should have greater knowledge of political science and the principle of democracy.

For example, “Political crisis in Myanmar.”

18. Sports Journalism

Sports journalism covers the story related to a sports event and sportsperson. It enriches the newspaper by providing national and international sports events. The young generations are the primary readers of sports news due to having much interest in the sport. Sports photojournalism is a powerful element of sports news reporting. There are mainly two types of sports journalism: sports action and sports feature journalism. In this regard, the journalists understand the specific sport clearly and have practical communication skills to cover the story. Also, journalists must ensure safety and security while covering spot sports news. 

For example, “Rio to allow fans for Brazil-Argentina final of Copa America.”

19. Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a different style of journalism in that journalism disseminates spectacular events via the small size of newspapers. The news is published in compact page format papers. It emphasizes sensational topics such as crime, corruption, celebrity gossip, and viral news on social media. Tabloid journalism is also known as rag publications.

For example, “Lionel Messi Join P.S.G.”

20. Watchdog Journalism

Watchdog journalism is another form of investigative journalism in which journalists reassure the authenticity of the news through interviewing the responsible people. It is the process of monitoring the government’s actions and increasing the accountability of the news. Watchdog journalism has become the principle of the press media. It enforces the government official and authority to fulfill public interests as per responsibility. The watchdog journalists scrutinize the people in power to reveal the fact. Watchdog journalism works to inform people rather than entertain them. 

For example. “Washington Post’s coverage of Watergate scandal.”

21. Comics Journalism

Comics journalism means graphic journalism in which journalists publish non-fiction events. The journalist draws a funny skeleton combined with pictures and words to convey a meaningful message and information to the audience. Therefore, the journalists are known as cartoonists or editorial cartoonists. It is also known as cartoon journalism. However, nowadays, journalist adopts technology such as computer and mobile to create visual graphics.

For example, “KAL’s cartoon.”

Comics Journalism of Print Media. Types of print journalism
Comics Journalism
 Illegal Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a distinguished form that focuses on increasing circulation rather than news authenticity. It is a process of luring audiences setting eye-catching headlines that is not much relevant to the body content. Yellow journalism is a popular term in the American press; it is also known as yellow press. Journalists focus on exaggerating the news instead of identifying authentic news. The contents have not come from well-research and investigation. Journalist practices yellow journalism intentionally without following the code of conduct in journalism; therefore, it is unethical—people terms yellow journalism as the negative role of journalists. 

Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism
Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism

For example. “Spanish American War.”

2. Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism means a process of reporting news and information through TV and Radio. Therefore, it includes T.V. and Radio Journalism. T.V. journalism is a special type of journalism that disseminates visual information via Television. It is a process of filming moments, and editing them to publish via television. Sometimes, T.V. journalists interview political, business people, or celebrities on-scene footage.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

  1. TV News Reporter
  2. TV News Presenter
  3. Interview Journalism

3. Digital Journalism

Digital journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing via digital platforms such as websites, blogsite, and social media sites. It is also known as online journalism that includes citizen journalism. Citizen journalists gather the information and publish it through digital networking sites such as websites, blogs, and social media. So, citizen journalism is one of the types of online journalism.

Types of Digital Journalism

Digital journalism involves collecting and publishing information via digital platforms such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. The citizens are involved in collecting, processing, and reporting the news. They generate content to convey messages to society and the community. However, digital journalism has both adverse and positive consequences on society. Sometimes, people spread fake and fabricated information to the country via citizen journalism. Nowadays, many people collect, process, and publish news on social media, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. The netizen generates and posts informative content on social media to create social awareness. There are many examples of digital journalism; however, the most common examples are Citizen journalism, YouTube journalism, Blogging, and Commenting.

For example, Arab Spring and Rebuilding Haiti.

The Three Examples of Digital Journalism are:
  1. Citizen Journalism
  2. YouTube Journalism
  3. Blogging
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2023, March 07). Types of Journalism, Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/types-of-journalism-different-types-of-journalism-print-broadcast-digital-journalist/

Types of News Lead Writing in Journalism With Examples

 Types of Leads in Journalism With Examples. Types of News Examples or Leads in News Story Writing.

21 Types of Journalism
Lead Writing- News Lead Writing
What is a News Lead?

The news lead is the most attractive part of the news and feature article positioned in the first and second paragraphs of a news article after the headlines. Usually, a good lead attracts readers to read the feature’s body by highlighting the news’s central issue. It contains the most essential information, followed by the body containing details, and the tail includes additional info.  According to the inverted pyramid style, the news lead answers the five w and one h questions to illustrate the story. An attractive news lead always increases the news value.

How to Become a Good News Lead Writer?

A good news writer always follows the 5W and 1H of the report writing strategy in journalism to cover all issues related to the news headlines.

Good News Lead Examples

A Good Lead must follow the 5W and 1H rules of news writing.

FORMULA WHO does WHAT,  WHEN, WHERE, WHY, and HOW
Who Subject, people name, organization name
What Name of activity and event
When Day, yesterday, tomorrow
Where Location name
Why Background of the event, purpose, cause
How Process, detail of the event, audiences
What is the Length of Lead Writing?

According to Mansor (2010), The length of a sentence should not exceed 25 words. On the other hand, according to Mencher (2010), The size of a sentence should not exceed 35 words. The ideal news leads include 20 to 35 words.

Types of Leads in Journalism

The two types of news leads in Journalism are:

  1. Traditional Lead (5W1H)
  2. Alternative Leads (10 Types of Lead in Journalism)
Types of Leads Wrtiting
Two Types of Leads Writing in Journalism
Traditional Lead

The traditional Lead is also known as the primary lead. It is constructed from 6 elements: who, what, when, where, why, and how. But, usually, the journalist will start with Who and What.  However, you can begin and end with any of the six elements. Traditional lead is one of the most common types of news leads writing strategy in journalism. It is similar to the Inverted Pyramid of news writing style.

Who-Lead News Writing Example
Headline Myanmar Ties the Young Tigers
Lead 1 The country’s under-22 squad (B-22) showed a lackluster performance in the opening match of Group A of the 2019 SEA Games when they only won a 1-1 draw against Myanmar just now.
Lead 2 The Young Tigers looked shaky early in the first half as they struggled to adapt on the surface of a synthetic pitch at the Rizal Memorial Stadium, Philippines.
What Lead News Writing Example
Headline Additional subjects follow the inclinations of the students
Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR-The Secondary School Standard Curriculum (KSSM) (Upper Secondary), which will come into effect next January, aims to improve the flow of Science and Literature in the existing education system.
Lead 2 Deputy Director-General of Education (Policy and Curriculum Sector), Dr. Habibah Abdul Rahman, said Form Four students could choose four packages containing a combination of core and elective subjects in the new school term.
When News-Lead Writing Example

Title: New Vaccine Rollout Set for Next Month

News-Lead: Next month, residents of Springfield County can expect the rollout of a new vaccine aimed at combating the spread of the flu virus.

Title: City Council to Vote on New Zoning Regulations Next Week

News-Lead: Next week, the City Council is set to convene for a crucial vote on proposed zoning regulations that could reshape our city’s urban landscape.

Why News Lead in Journalism

In journalism, why news-lead refers to reasons or justification of an incident reported by a newspaper. It focuses on understanding the significance of the news event.

Title: The massive landslide caused by heavy rain, not human activity

News Lead: For example, A landslide that killed 31 people at an unlicensed campground last year was caused by persistent heavy rainfall, not human activity, a Malaysian government investigation concluded.

Alternative Leads in Journalism

Alternative Leads include Staccato Lead, Question Lead, Narrative Lead, Contras Lead, Citation Lead, Straight Lead, Scene Lead, Anecdote Lead, Significant Detail Lead, and Direct address lead in journalism.

1. Staccato Lead

This staccato lead effectively sets the tone for the article, immediately drawing readers into the story and providing a concise summary of the main event and the contrasting emotions surrounding it

  • It is a dot sign in the music
  • It’s mean- separately read
  • It’s like a dot, meaning the end of the sentence
 Example of Staccato
Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: There is no Raya shirt or any celebration, and this year’s festival doesn’t seem to mean anything to them. For the past two months, this hospital has been their second home.
Lead 2 “Every day, we just shed tears thinking of Raef who risked his life because his health condition is often uncertain,” said Noraini Jaafar, 37, mother of four-year-old Raef Uqael Mohd Rosli.
2. Question Lead

Question News-Lead writing involves opening an article with a compelling question that piques the reader’s curiosity and encourages them to continue reading.  Write in a question sentence (like the question to the audience). However, the audience did not necessarily prepare the answer.

Here’s an original example of question lead writing:

“Will groundbreaking advancements in renewable energy finally pave the way for a greener future? As scientists unveil revolutionary technologies and governments commit to ambitious sustainability goals, the world stands on the brink of a transformative energy revolution.”

This question lead engages readers by presenting an intriguing inquiry about the potential for significant progress in renewable energy. It sets the stage for the article to explore recent developments and initiatives in the field, inviting readers to delve deeper into the topic.

Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: Are you willing to wait as early as 8 am to buy various items at a discount of more than 70 percent in preparation for Aid ul Fitr, even though Sogo shopping malls in the capital are only open at 10 am?
Lead 2 Should we take the family shopping in the capital in the morning?
3. Narrative or Descriptive Lead

A narrative or descriptive lead in journalism aims to vividly depict a scene or event, drawing readers into the story with descriptive language and storytelling techniques.

Here’s an original example of a narrative or descriptive lead:

“As the first light of dawn painted the sky in hues of pink and gold, the sleepy village of Meadowbrook awoke to the sound of bustling activity. Against the backdrop of rolling hills and quaint cottages, farmers gathered in the town square, their weathered hands clasping baskets overflowing with freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. The air was filled with the sweet scent of ripe strawberries and the cheerful chatter of neighbors reuniting after a week-long market hiatus.”

This descriptive lead transports readers to the idyllic setting of Meadowbrook, immersing them in the sights, sounds, and atmosphere of the bustling village marketplace. It sets the stage for the article to explore the vibrancy and community spirit of the local farmers’ market. The situation/picture of the event

Example of Narrative or Descriptive Lead in News Writing
Lead 1 Seremban: The suspicious actions of two women in black hijab rushing out of a supermarket were answered when they were suspected of stealing various dishes at a supermarket in Seremban 2 yesterday.
Lead 2 Security guards sniffed the act of the two suspects in their 30s stealing the set of dishes before arresting them.
4. Contrast Lead

Contrans news lead in journalism compares two events. Opposite with the actor and event. A contrast lead in newspaper journalism juxtaposes two contrasting elements or perspectives to immediately capture the reader’s attention.

Here’s an original example of a contrast lead:

“While the city celebrated the grand opening of its newest luxury shopping mall, just blocks away, residents of the impoverished Southside neighborhood grappled with yet another night of power outages and crumbling infrastructure. As the glittering lights of the mall dazzled affluent shoppers, the stark reality of inequality loomed large in the shadows of neglect and disparity.”

This contrast lead effectively highlights the disparity between the affluent and neglected neighborhoods within the city, drawing attention to the stark contrast in living conditions and opportunities. It sets the tone for the article to explore issues of social inequality and urban development.

Example of Contrast Lead in News Writing

Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR, July 26-The illegal gambling activities that have seemed ‘silent’ in recent months in public business premises are still happening in exclusive places, including luxury bungalows, condominiums, and private clubs.
Lead 2 President of the Malaysian Consumer Protection Association, Datuk Mohd. Firdaus Abdullah said the activity was difficult to detect by the authorities because it used a secure location and only involved invitations.
5. Citation Lead

A citation lead in journalism involves opening an article with a direct quote or reference from a credible source, providing immediate context or authority to the story. Statement from the sources (talk/seminar/press conference). I am starting with the “symbol. For example, the lead begins with a quotation mark. It is a unique type of news lead writing style in journalism.

Here’s an original example of a citation lead:

“In a recent interview with leading environmental scientist Dr. Emily Johnson, she warned, ‘The rapid decline of polar ice caps is an urgent wake-up call for global action on climate change.’ Dr. Johnson’s stark assessment comes amidst mounting concerns over the impact of rising temperatures on polar ecosystems and sea levels.”

This citation lead introduces the topic of climate change by referencing an expert opinion, Dr. Emily Johnson, thereby lending credibility and urgency to the issue. It sets the stage for the article to delve deeper into the scientific findings and implications of climate change.

Lead 1 Kuala Terengganu: “He told me to take care of myself and educate my children well before he ‘left’,” said Salihana Zawawi, 29, wife of Mohd Zawawi Seman, 36, who was found floating in the waters of Pulau Kapas, Marang after disappearing at sea together—three other brothers in Kuala Kemaman on June 21.
Lead 2 Mohd Zawawi’s body was found floating by fishermen at 5 pm yesterday before his body was taken by the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement (APMM) to the Pulau Kambing jetty and handed over to the Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital (HSNZ) Forensic Unit.
6. A straight lead or summary lead

A straight lead presents the story’s summary, showing the news outcome instantly. It gives the outline or a gist of the whole episode or article for readers who do not have a lot of time to sit and read can glance through actual headlines of the day.

Example of a straight lead

Kuala Lumpur: Celebrity entrepreneur Noor Neelofa Mohd Noor and her Islamic televangelist husband, Haris Ismail, have repeatedly come under police investigation after their alleged violations of the movement control order (MCO) made headlines.

7. A Scene Lead

A scene lead starts a story with an introduction and influences the readers to read the whole story. A scene lead in journalism paints a vivid picture of a specific moment or event, immersing readers in the scene to captivate their attention.

For example:

Johor Bahru: Security guards are not scared of any unwanted situation of their responsibility.

Here’s an original example of a scene lead:

“As the sun dipped below the horizon, casting a golden glow over the tranquil harbor, the bustling fish market of Port Harbor came to life. Fishermen unloaded their day’s catch, their weathered faces illuminated by the flickering lanterns hanging overhead. The air was thick with the salty scent of the sea mingling with the lively banter of vendors haggling over prices, creating a symphony of sights and sounds that epitomized the vibrant maritime culture of the coastal town.”

This scene lead transports readers to the bustling fish market of Port Harbor, evoking the sensory details and atmosphere of the setting. It sets the stage for the article to explore the livelihoods of fishermen and the rich maritime traditions of the community.

8. Anecdote lead

It tells a short story to explain the whole story. This type of lead is used to attract readers to read a long story. An anecdote lead in journalism uses a short, engaging story or anecdote to introduce the main topic of the article.

For example,

“Jane Smith never imagined her morning walk would turn into a heroic rescue mission. As she strolled along the riverbank, enjoying the crisp morning air, she spotted a small dog struggling in the fast-flowing water.”

9. Significant Detail Lead

A significant detail lead opens the story by focusing on a concrete detail that symbolizes the central theme.

For Example, it was neither his family members nor friends who stole the politician’s car yesterday night.

10. Direct Address Lead

A direct-address lead speaks directly to the reader, using the second person. It addresses the reader directly as ‘you.’ It enhances the interest of the reader as it directly talks to them.

Example: “You might not get relief from the harsh winds as the weather remain same.”

In conclusion, the news lead is crucial for news and feature articles to attract audiences. It motivates the readers to read the entire story. Many passive audiences read only the headline and lead. However, an attractive news lead instigates passive audiences to engage with the article. The news lead generated according to the inverted pyramid structure influences active and passive audiences to read the whole article thoroughly. This article explains the types of news leads in journalism.