Types of Journalism: 21 Different Types of Journalism

Types of Journalism- 21 Different Types of Journalism are Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism & Digital Journalism. Journalism Categories. Types of Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

Journalism

Journalism is a combined process of collecting, processing, and disseminating information through print, electronic, digital, or online media. Print media are printed publications such as books, newspapers, magazines, billboards, etc. Electronic media in journalism are mass media such as telephone, television, and radio. Digital media are internet-based outlets such as websites, blogs, and social media. Journalists are the people who collect, analyze, process and distribute information via media.

News Values in Journalism
Journalism Types Diagram

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Types of Journalism

Types of journalism refer to the journalism categories or kinds of journalism. The three most common kinds of journalism are print, broadcast, and online.

Different Types of Journalism
  1. Print Journalism
  2. Broadcast Journalism
  3. Digital Journalism.

Journalism differs into three categories: Print, Broadcast, and Digital.

1. Print Journalism

Print journalism is the process of news reporting through print media such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Newspapers are the most significant print outlet to publish diverse types of news together. A newspaper has many spaces to disseminate different types of news; for example, national, international, editorial, advertisement, and sports. The print media authority assigns expert journalists for each space. Print media is a journalism category for publishing massive amounts of information to the audience. 

Example of Print Journalism

For example, print journalism includes newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, and academic journals. It denotes printed documents that convey information.

Newspaper Print Journalism
Example of Print Journalism

21 Types of Print Journalism

The 21 types of print journalism are advocacy journalism, agriculture journalism, arts journalism, celebrity journalism, crime journalism, defense journalism, economic journalism, editorial journalism, education journalism, environmental journalism, feature journalism, freelance journalism, opinion journalism, investigative journalism, lifestyle journalism, photojournalism, political journalism, sports journalism, tabloid journalism, comics journalism, and watchdog journalism. The author does not acknowledge yellow journalism as a part of journalism because it is the malpractice of journalism. 

1. Advocacy Journalism

Advocacy journalism is the process of reporting news from a non-objective viewpoint. It refers to a common type of journalism that combines reporting with a social or political viewpoint. The reports are generated by advocacy journalists dealing with social events, corruption, and corporate and government policy. This report appears as a potential jolt for the audience. Somewhat it is another type of investigative journalism. Advocacy journalists practice journalism from an ideological viewpoint to support the nation and society.

For example, “Vaccination better way to combat COVID-19 than lockdown.”

2. Agriculture Journalism

Agriculture journalism is a genre in which the journalist collects agriculture-related data and processes them to publish as informative information through mass media. It compares the traditional and new ways of cultivation. It also includes the challenges of the agriculture sector of the country.

For example, “Canadian farmers produce organic vegetables.”

3. Arts Journalism

Art journalism refers to the common type of journalism in which journalists analyze and report arts events such as theatre, architecture, movies, drama, visual illustration, music, and so more. It discusses traditional events of the community, society, country, and sub-continent areas. Art journalists focus on artistic features.

For example, “New art hub for Bournemouth.”

4. Celebrity Journalism

Celebrity journalism is the category of journalism that covers events related to celebrities such as sportspeople, royal family people, singers, T.V. stars, and opera stars.

For example, “Jennifer Lopez Goes From Business to Pleasure in Two Dramatically Different Looks.

5. Crime Journalism

Crime journalism refers to covering sensational news stories related to offensive incidents in society. It is mainly associated with wrongdoing issues related to police, victims, and criminals. It is also part of objective and investigative journalism. Crime journalism is also known as crime news reporting; sometimes, it includes taking the interview of the crime stories. The journalist keeps a good relationship with the police, lawyer, and admin officer to get the news quickly. Crime events are crucial issues that add news value in journalism; therefore, journalists are interested in reporting those events. 

For example, “Haiti President Jovenel Moise killed.”

6. Defense Journalism

Defense journalism refers to specialized journalism covering events related to the Army and Navy. It is an exceptional type of journalism that builds the relationship between the media and the military. Defense journalist gets special training to report war news from the spot. Usually, journalists write articles and generate content regarding military events and information to entertain soldiers. Defense journalists should know military history, rules and regulations, languages, and international relations.

For example, “the U.S. troops return from Afghanistan.”

7. Economic Journalism

Economic journalism is a significant type of journalism that covers the country’s financial issues, events, systems, and policies. It also includes an analytical report and comparative analysis of the financial state of the country. The reporters must have good knowledge of the economy in the country to report these types of news. The businessmen are the fundamental readers of this column. The journalists collect information by interviewing the finance manager, owner, investor, and company employee.

For example, “Lockdown hit the economy during the the Eid ul Adha Festival.”

8. Editorial Journalism

Editorial journalism refers to a genre of journalism where the chief editor expresses the opinion logically and ethically. In this respect, journalists play an important role in shaping public opinion by providing rational arguments. Although it is similar to opinion journalism, it is fixed only for editors to provide logical opinions. The editorial contents must include the news leads, body, and summary.

For example, “Effectiveness of the movement control order in Malaysia.”

 9. Education Journalism

Education journalism deals with covering any news related to the Department of Education. It includes news related to the development of the education system. On the other hand, it also shows the discrimination that occurred in the education sector. The prime focus of the education journalist is to raise social awareness among students to get their rights properly. The educators and students are the main readers of this column. Additionally, students, teachers, and researchers become education journalists.

For example, “Education Ministry advises conducting online classes until 2022 in Malaysia.”

10. Environment Journalism

Environment journalism is reporting environmental issues, such as natural disasters, climate change, and global warming. Disaster journalism is one of the types of environment journalism because it includes news related to natural calamities and disaster management. Environment news covers natural conditions and calamities such as water layers, deforestation, global warming, floods, etc. It also includes the casualties and infrastructural damages. The reporters need to ensure safety while covering the news from the spot. It represents the victim’s wound that affects people’s emotions. The report also shows how the international and national disaster management authority plays its role in rescuing the people from the affected areas.

For example, “Cyclone hits Bangladesh and death toll rises to 200”.

11. Feature Journalism

Feature journalism means producing and publishing non-fiction articles dealing with events, issues, and trends. The aim of feature articles is not only to entertain but also to educate people. Feature journalism is also known as news feature article writing. The most common news feature articles are Personality Features, How-To Feature, Reviews Feature, Travelogue Features Article, Sports Features, and Obituary Features. Travel journalism includes travel articles and travelogue features.

For example, “3 idiots Film Review.”

Feature journalism in Print Journalism
Sports Feature Journalism in Print Media
12. Freelance Journalism

Freelance journalism is the process of generating informative content and selling them to media organizations. It is one kind of contract work; journalists complete newspapers, magazines, and commercial organizations. The content might be related to fashion, sports, products, and environments. Nowadays, many freelance journalists work to promote commercial products. Additionally, some of them are involved in investigative journalism.

For example, “How to earn money from Facebook.”

13. Opinion Journalism

Opinion journalism means publishing an author’s opinion regarding an issue. The author has good academic and or practical knowledge of the subjects. The content is a piece of article that is intended to clarify the issues elaborately.

For example, “The Importance of artificial intelligence in digital business.”

14. Investigative Journalism

Investigative journalism refers to a genre of journalism in which the journalist investigates a single case of interest, such as discrimination, corruption, wrongdoing, and critical crimes. An investigative journalist might spend a week, month, and year analyzing and reporting the news. They scrutinize the information thoroughly to identify the actual people behind the crimes or occurrences.

For example, “September 11 attract: who and why.”

15. Lifestyle Journalism

Lifestyle journalism is the process of reporting events related to people’s lifestyles such as food, travel, cooking, eating habits, yoga, home decoration, gardening, leisure, hobby, music, fashion, etc. It is one of the favorite types of journalism for the young generation. Lifestyle journalism has become more popular in recent decades. It provides tips and tricks for leading a life with happiness and avoiding common problems relevant to lifestyle. 

For example, “Vogue brings new fashion at shop in 2021.”

16. Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a specific form of journalism that describes an event, issue, conflict, or story. A proverb says that a photo conveys more information than a thousand words. Photojournalism is a significant process of conveying emotions and stories via photos. It is an essential element of print journalism.

The most common types of photojournalism are spot news, general news, personality, illustration, pictorial photojournalism, and so more.

Photojournalism in Print media
Illustration Photojournalism in Print Media
 17. Political Journalism

Political journalism is a form of journalism in which journalists publish political news. The political news can be local or international. It presents deep information regarding democracy, royal families, elections, dictatorship, and so more. Political journalism reveals critical information about civil government how they rule the country. It also talks about the regional and international political powers. Political journalists should have greater knowledge of political science and the principle of democracy.

For example, “Political crisis in Myanmar.”

18. Sports Journalism

Sports journalism covers the story related to a sports event and sportsperson. It enriches the newspaper by providing national and international sports events. The young generations are the primary readers of sports news due to having much interest in the sport. Sports photojournalism is a powerful element of sports news reporting. There are mainly two types of sports journalism: sports action and sports feature journalism. In this regard, the journalists understand the specific sport clearly and have practical communication skills to cover the story. Also, journalists must ensure safety and security while covering spot sports news. 

For example, “Rio to allow fans for Brazil-Argentina final of Copa America.”

19. Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a different style of journalism in that journalism disseminates spectacular events via the small size of newspapers. The news is published in compact page format papers. It emphasizes sensational topics such as crime, corruption, celebrity gossip, and viral news on social media. Tabloid journalism is also known as rag publications.

For example, “Lionel Messi Join P.S.G.”

20. Watchdog Journalism

Watchdog journalism is another form of investigative journalism in which journalists ensure the authenticity of the news by interviewing responsible people. It is the process of monitoring the government’s actions and increasing the accountability of the news. Watchdog journalism has become the principle of the press media. It enforces the government official and authority to fulfill public interests as per responsibility. The watchdog journalists scrutinize the people in power to reveal the facts. Watchdog journalism works to inform people rather than entertain them. 

For example. “Washington Post’s coverage of Watergate scandal.”

21. Comics Journalism

Comics journalism means graphic journalism in which journalists publish non-fiction events. The journalist draws a funny skeleton combined with pictures and words to convey a meaningful message and information to the audience. Therefore, the journalists are known as cartoonists or editorial cartoonists. It is also known as cartoon journalism. However, nowadays, journalist adopts technology such as computers and mobile to create visual graphics.

For example, “KAL’s cartoon.”

Comics Journalism of Print Media. Types of print journalism
Comics Journalism
 Illegal Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a distinguished form that focuses on increasing circulation rather than news authenticity. It is a process of luring audiences setting eye-catching headlines that are not very relevant to the body content. Yellow journalism is a popular term in the American press; it is also known as yellow press. Journalists focus on exaggerating the news instead of identifying authentic news. The contents have not come from research and investigation. Journalist practices yellow journalism intentionally without following the code of conduct in journalism; therefore, it is unethical—people term yellow journalism as the negative role of journalists. 

Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism
Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism

For example. “Spanish American War.”

2. Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism is a process of reporting news and information through TV and Radio. Therefore, it includes T.V. and Radio Journalism. T.V. journalism is a special type of journalism that disseminates visual information via Television. It is a process of filming moments, and editing them to publish via television. Sometimes, T.V. journalists interview political, business people, or celebrities on-scene footage.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

  1. TV News Reporter
  2. TV News Presenter
  3. Interview Journalism

3. Digital Journalism

Digital journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing via digital platforms such as websites, blogs, and social media sites. It is also known as online journalism which includes citizen journalism. Citizen journalists gather the information and publish it through digital networking sites such as websites, blogs, and social media. So, citizen journalism is one of the types of online journalism.

Types of Digital Journalism

Digital journalism involves collecting and publishing information via digital platforms such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. The citizens are involved in collecting, processing, and reporting the news. They generate content to convey messages to society and the community. However, digital journalism has both adverse and positive consequences on society. Sometimes, people spread fake and fabricated information to the country via citizen journalism. Nowadays, many people collect, process, and publish news on social media, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. The netizen generates and posts informative content on social media to create social awareness. There are many examples of digital journalism; however, the most common examples are Citizen journalism, YouTube journalism, Blogging, and Commenting.

For example, Arab Spring and Rebuilding Haiti.

The Three Examples of Digital Journalism are:
  1. Citizen Journalism
  2. YouTube Journalism
  3. Blogging
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Types of Journalism, Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/types-of-journalism-different-types-of-journalism-print-broadcast-digital-journalist/

News Values in Journalism Definition, Elements & Examples

News Values – 12 News Values in Journalism Definition & Examples. 

News Values in Journalism

News value in journalism refers to the significant elements of newsworthiness. Journalist focuses on maintaining news values to increase newsworthiness. The news values in journalism are components that strongly affect newsworthiness; therefore, it is also known as the elements of newsworthiness. The importance of news is a common principle determining how media outlets prioritize the news story. The components of newsworthiness set the importance of the news story. 

The 12 news values in journalism are Proximity, Controversy, Personal Influence, Suitability, Impact, Bizarre, Human-Interest, Timeliness, Progress, Genuineness, Completeness, and Negativeness. These elements of newsworthiness determine whether the news is necessary for the readers. They are also called determinants of news. Hence, media practitioners focus on these elements to increase the value of the news long ago.

However, the social and political contexts can affect news values; for example, in North Korea, media outlets can not publish controversial and negative news. In North Korea news media are regulated under the authoritarian theory of the press; therefore, these media are unable to publish information that they want.

 

Print journalism is one of the primary forms of journalism in mass media, following broadcast and online journalism. It has different forms of journalism: art journalism, investigative journalism, sports journalism, and yellow journalism. The journalists focus on news value to collect and publish news through newspapers. The news value in journalism has become crucial in justifying the importance of the news leads and story. 

News Values in Journalism

The 12 News Values in Journalism are:
  1. Proximity
  2. Personal influence
  3. Controversy
  4. Suitability
  5. Impact
  6. Bizarre
  7. Human Interest
  8. Timeliness
  9. Progress
  10. Genuineness
  11. Completeness
  12. Negativeness

News Values in Journalism- 12 News Values in Journalism Definition & Example. 12 Elements of Newsworthiness.

1. Proximity News Value

Proximity refers to the area of the event where the incident takes place. It also indicates the location of the news event. Proximity is one of the significant news values in journalism. The news event’s proximity or location affects the news’s value. The closer the place is, the more interested you are in reading the information. The readers feel more excited to read the news story if it occurs near them. So, proximity positively affects newsworthiness; hence, it is a significant element. 

Proximity News Example

For example, “Water pollution problem in Johor Bahru.”

Another example of the news value of proximity:

“Local Charity Provides Thanksgiving Meals to Families in Need”

In the heart of our community, a local charity, ‘Hope for All,’ organized a Thanksgiving meal distribution event yesterday, bringing warmth and nourishment to families facing hardship this holiday season. Located just blocks away from our neighborhood, the charity’s volunteers gathered at the community center to assemble and distribute hundreds of turkey dinners with all the trimmings to residents in need.

This story highlights the proximity news value by focusing on an event that directly impacts the local community. By reporting on initiatives like ‘Hope for All,’ which operates within proximity to the readership area, the news story resonates with the audience’s experiences and concerns, fostering a sense of connection and solidarity within the community.

2. Controversy News Value

Controversy means a conflicting news story that adds newsworthiness. It is also known as disagreement of the news event: the more controversial the news, the more critical the report to the readers. Controversy attracts the audiences to read the information, which adds sensation to the news story. People are always eager to identify the truth behind the conflict. So, controversy is another crucial news value in journalism or an element of newsworthiness. 

For example, the BJP minister says that the Taj Mahal was a Shiva temple long ago. Malaysia Airlines flight MH370: explaining media controversy.

3. Personal Influence News Value

Personal influence refers to the prominence of the person to newsworthiness. A famous person always plays a significant role in increasing the news value. Therefore, the media covers well-known people’s news, including politicians, sportspeople, and celebrities. The audiences feel a close connection with their idol people. For example, the followers of Lionel Messi, also a famous football player, will read any news related to Messi. The widest of the personal prominence, the most value the news. The person can be an athlete, artist, politician, or social worker. 

For Example, Profile Feature Article: The Amazing Life of Paul McCartney.

4. Suitability News Value

Suitability denotes the involvement of the public in the topics. The news story is more newsworthy if more people are involved with the issue. It is also known as the much-talked issue in the country. The more people involved, the more value the news in journalism. 

For example, around 30,000 University of Putra Malaysia students have registered for vaccines.

Also, “Many were killed in the crash, 1 million youths gathered in Putrajaya.”

5. Impact News Value

Impact refers to the physical influence of news writing on a large audience. The impact affects the value of news significantly to attract audiences. The more people engaged in the news, add more critical the topic. For example, price hiking has been the most relevant issue to attract people to read any updated news related to the topic. Therefore, News media feel interested in covering any news related to price hiking. It has a significant impact on audiences.

For example, “Inflation cooled last month, but some price hikes continue to cause pain.”

6. Bizarre News Value

Bizzare is a significant element in increasing the value of the news. Bizzare means strange; naturally, people like to read, watch, and talk about weird issues. Therefore, journalists publish strange events to attract audiences. It added value to the news and boosted circulation. 

For Example, “Africa’s Real-Life Mowgli Loves to Live Amid Trees.”

7. Human-Interest News Value

Human-interest news stories get attention from a massive number of people automatically. It includes the much-talked event and issues of the country. International topics have also become human-interest stories due to globalization. For example, during the FIFA World Cup, people worldwide talk about Football everywhere. So, journalists carefully pick a story topic to get more viewers.

For example. “UEFA Euro Cup 2024 final date and match fixure.”

8. Timeliness (Fast News) News Value

Timeliness in journalism means providing information to the audience quickly. The quicker the news is published, the more important getting to the audience. Journalists want to publish news as soon as possible to increase the corporate reputation of the media outlet. The audience gives more importance to the mass media outlet disseminating the news first.

Timeliness is an occasion that enhances the value of news. People do not like to read the same news repeatedly; therefore, news outlets show interest in disseminating information as soon as possible. It is related to current and ongoing events. For example, many newspapers publish news regarding Olympic issues when the event continues. Newspapers will not be interested in disseminating information about the Olympic games when the event ends.

For example, in May 2021, many passengers were injured due to the LRT crash. Many news outlets cover the news to get the audience’s attention. However, people give more importance to the newspapers that publish the news quickly. For example, “Malaysia LRT crash: Train was driven in wrong direction, 6 critically injured”.

9. Progress News Value

Progress news in journalism refers to the sensational update of the current news or events that journalist focuses on to attract more audiences. It adds massive significance to the news story to attract the audience. Progress news is always attractive to the audience for its advancement. The progress news is delivered through press conferences and seminars.

For example, the health ministry disseminates the updated number of COVID-19-affected patients through press conferences. So, it is an example of a progress news story.

10 Genuineness News Value

Genuine news means an authentic story collected from a trustworthy source. People always want to know the facts of the news. The audience determines the authenticity of the news through the genuine witness and trustworthy source of the news.

For example, according to the WHO, 192 million people have been affected by the coronavirus, and 4.13 people have died. Most people will believe this news as the World Health Organization (WHO) disseminates the information via press conferences.

11. Completeness News Value

Complete news includes 5Ws and 1 H news writing methods. The five Ws and one H report writing rules indicate the who, what, when, where, why, and how. A journalist should find all these questions’ answers to make the report comprehensive for the audience. People do not like incomplete news and ambiguous information. Therefore, reporters must focus on the inverted pyramid news-writing formula to produce completed news.  5W and 1 H reporting strategies to make the report more attractive and accepted by the readers.

In conclusion, every reporter needs to follow these four significant elements to make the news more attractive to the audience.

12. Negativeness

Negative news spreads faster than positive. People discuss and share adverse events more than ordinary news. Negative news occurs for a short-term period than positive news. Netizens share this type of news on social media excessively. Therefore, negative news goes viral quickly.

For example, “Katie Price arrested on suspicion of ‘drink driving’ and taken to hospital after crash.”

Conclusion

The 12 news values in journalism are Proximity, Controversy, Personal Influence, Suitability, Impact, Bizarre, Human-Interest, Timeliness, Progress, Genuineness, Completeness, and Negativeness, which increase newsworthiness. Apart from the 12 news values, romance, crime, and technology are other elements.