Business Plan Examples For Students Entrepreneurship PDF

Business Plan Examples For Students. Business Proposal Examples for Students. Also, Business Plan Samples For Students. Business Plan Examples For Students Entrepreneurship PDF.

Business Plan

The business plan refers to the company’s written statement that explains the business entirely, including executive summary, product and service, operation, marketing, and financial plan. The employee makes the business plan to represent the organization to stakeholders, customers, and affiliates. It proposes the business strategy entirely, so a business plan is also known as a business proposal. The business plan is crucial for a company to achieve competitive advantages. The significant elements of the business plan are executive summary, background, product and service, organizational structure, sale and marketing strategy, financial and operational plan, and so more. For example, the new organizational structure of Netflix has influenced to improve its performance in 2021-2022. In the meantime, Netflix added the new organizational structure to the business plan and declared it publicly.

Business Plan Example For Students

A business plan example refers to a business proposal sample that thoroughly explains the organization, including the executive summary to the financial statement. It also indicates the business report example or business proposal format. An example of a business plan includes the executive summary of the business, operational strategy, startup financial projections, financial projection, etc. The business plan example for students is also known as the business report format. Business plan writing is a mandatory assignment for students in the entrepreneurship, business administration, and business management course. It is also crucial to get a bank loan and make agreements with other organizations. The bank authority asks the organization to submit a business plan with the bank loan application. The other names of a business plan are business proposal, report, profile, and more. A business plan example is also known as a business proposal example, sample, and format.

Business Plan Examples For Students Entrepreneurship

Today, the author presents a business plan example for students that the students have created in the basic entrepreneurship course in the faculty of economics and management, University Putra Malaysia (UPM). The lecturer sets group assignments for the students, and therefore, the students make the business plan example to complete the group assignment. So, this business plan example certainly assists students of entrepreneurship, BBA, MBA, economics, finance, and business communication course.

Example of Business Report

Business Plan Examples For Students

The students set the company name “BambooS.” BambooS sell reusable and eco-friendly bamboo straws. Bamboo straws are a unique product in Malaysia that can be customized for their length and diameters. Besides, the company offers engraving services. So, customers can customize a meaningful word on the bamboo straw for engraving. In addition, it provides a designed pouch as packaging for our bamboo straw that looks smart.

Business Plan Example and Sample For Students


1.0 Executive Summary Of Business Plan

BambooS Sdn. Bhd. company was created by a group of 10 students of University Putra Malaysia from different faculty, and all of them are enrolled in Basic Entrepreneurship (MGM 3180) class. This company is named BambooS as we are selling and producing bamboo-based products. The capital S in the company’s name stands for straw. The original idea came from one of our members, who had suggested we sell reusable and eco-friendly straws. So, we chose Bamboo as the main ingredient of the products.

Currently, we focus on producing bamboo straws as we want to serve the best quality yet affordable straws to our customers. Our product is also biodegradable as it is made from Bamboo. We also guarantee that customers can use our signature many times, and it is also easy to wash and carry. The straw size is customizable, so customers choose the size based on their preferences. In addition, our specialty is not only on our product but also in our packaging. We use eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable packaging. BambooS targeted customers are the University Putra Malaysia society.

Each member will contribute RM 100 each, so the total for ten members’ contributions for the capital is RM 1000. Our warehouse is in the Serdang area, where we produce, package, and store our products. We are making the straw as per the customer’s demand and request. For the marketing part, we are advertising and promoting our product through social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, and e-commerce, such as Shopee. We adopt the lean canvas business model tool to assess the outcome of the business.

2.0 Background of the Company

Product Introduction of Business Plan Examples

2.2 Company overview

Company Overview of Business Plan Formats

2.3 Vision And Mission Statement
2.3.1 Vision Statement

To build a business that encourages using environmentally friendly products in UPM and makes bamboo straw the first choice instead of using a non-reusable straw.

2.3.2    Mission Statement

We want to fulfill the objective of satisfying customers with our eco-friendly products. We are committed to providing a customizable, fair price, and safe bamboo straw to encourage people to reduce pollution by using reusable straws anywhere and anytime.

2.4 Keys To Success

The Keys to Success for BambooS Include: 

Reputation We will always keep in touch with the customer to collect all the feedback on our product or service so we can improve to reach the customer’s satisfaction
Superior Customer Service Additionally, the management is helpful in assisting customers to customize and choose the best straw size based on their preferences.
Location Moreover, BambooS deliver products all around Malaysia.
Product Finally, the products are very reusable, affordable, and eco-friendly.

Table 3 Key of Success

2.5 Organizational Chart

Organizational Structure- Business Plan Template

3.0 Administration anD Human Resource Plan

3.1 Business Strategies

Business strategy is crucial in order to maintain or amplify a company’s growth, and the personal preferences of corporate management do not influence good business strategies. Based on strategy in our company, there are some highlights on the function of every department to make sure all the plans run smoothly to meet the targeted goal that needs to be achieved in our business plan. We have put as much emphasis on the efficiency of each department.

Our company has set several strategies to achieve the company objectives. However, these strategies have been made based on every department’s suggestion.

a. Administration and Human Resources Department
  • The admin and human resource department monitors all the business operations according to the procedure and manages co-workers and administration problems.
  • It also addresses and solves problems that affect people management programs in the long run.
b. Marketing Department
  • This department ensures the marketing of the product and promotional activities in order to reach the products to a vast amount of potential clients.
  • It also promotes the business and mission of an organization through social media.
c. Operational Department
  • The operational department ensures that all the equipment and material are in order to run the operation smoothly and maintain that all products are effective and of good quality.
  • Additionally, this department has the ultimate accountability for profit and loss and seeks to maximize return on investment for the shareholders.
3.2 Position and Qualification

Business Plan Example

3.3 Job Descriptions

Job Description in Business Plan

4.0  Market Plan

4.1  Introduction

BambooS Sdn. Bhd. Support the “Save The Earth” campaign in producing eco-friendly Bamboo straws. These straws are environmentally friendly products; therefore, they work as alternatives to plastic products. The government has imposed restrictions on the use of plastic straws. They also create social awareness among people to consume natural products. Hence,   It is a substantial driving factor of our market strategy. In addition, the surging demand for drinking beverages, including juices and Boba drinks and the save the turtle campaign, is also propelling the demand for bamboo straws across the globe. Bamboo straws are reusable compared to plastic; they are better for health, durable & robust, and it is an environmentally friendly product.

4.2 Objective of Marketing

Our objective in producing Bamboo straw is to encourage consumers to use natural, eco-friendly products. Why are bamboo straws better than metal? Firstly, Bamboo comes from a natural source. So, it is naturally sturdy and effortless to collect. We need to use chemicals in order to produce and process metal straws.

Additionally, metal straws are not pocket friendly compared to Bamboo. Moreover, metal will rust when in contact with water and oxygen. Bamboo is much more cost-effective, less work, and easy to get sources. Our marketing strategy will focus mainly on reusable principal and much more trendy to youngsters because we have an engraving service to attract them.

4.3 Analysis of Marketing
4.3.1 Market Trend

The demand for bamboo straws has risen due to growing environmental awareness. Additionally, plastic straws have been reduced due to the government’s restrictions. , However, due to some exceptional properties of Bamboo, the bamboo straws market is anticipated to witness high growth prospects shortly. In addition, BambooS Sdn. Bhd’s uniqueness is we produce our straw ourselves, safety and hygiene assure, plus buyer can engrave their name on the straw, which is the wow factor to our product. Nowadays, consumers want recognition for something they buy or support, and they are also enthusiastic about ‘Save the Earth’ and deserve to flex.

4.3.2 External Environment Analysis

Our first target market is around University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Since we are students of UPM, it is easier to approach our target consumers, including students and staff. Students tend to bring their water bottles or flask to classes. It is one step toward being environmentally friendly; thus, we encourage their effort by selling bamboo straws. In addition, we will promote our product at cafes or food courts at faculty and library cafes and put up a booth at stationery stores and convenience stores.

4.3.3 Internal Environment Analysis


SWOT Analysis For Business Plan Example

4.3.4 Market Opportunities

Our bamboo straw is portable and comes with a pouch; thus, it is hygienic and convenient to bring everywhere. We also provide a small brush to ensure deep cleaning of the inner straw. Our product is not one of the straws, so students and staff can save money, and no need to bring straws in large volumes. The structure of our bamboo straw is strong and sturdy; thus, it will not break if soaked in water for a long time, unlike paper straws.

4.4 Target Market
4.4.1    Segmentation


  • S size – for ordinary beverage, fully liquid
  • L size – suit for Boba drink or any drink that has topping.


  • People use straws for drinking tea, juice, frappe, and Boba.


  • Restaurant, cafe, food court, canteen, food stall, stationery store, convenience store, cooperative around UPM
4.4.2 Consumer Market and Buyer Behaviour

(i)         Student and staff at UPM
(ii)        Cafe and Restaurant at UPM

4.4.3 Positioning
  1. New marketing strategy for eco-friendly products in the market.
  2. Our product, production, process, and packaging match with zero pollution
  • Providing Engraved service
  1. Customized and Eco-friendly bamboo straws of different sizes
  2. Made by Organic material
  3. Unique packaging with punch made by the jute bag.
4.5 4 P’s Marketing Strategy
4.5.1 Product Strategy

To make our product outstand the competitors in our business, we will ensure the quality and safety of our products always satisfy our customers.


Our product comes neatly packaged in unique eco-friendly packaging with punch made by the jute bag, natural storage bags designed to help people think responsibly and promote their reusable bamboo straws every day.


Our company provides customization services such as resizes and engraving the bamboo straws to attract more customers. So, our customers can request any size and engrave their straw with any logo or design they like. Our product comes in two sizes: the regular size for the standard beverage, fully liquid, and the large size suitable for Boba drink or drink that has topped. For engraving, customers can send and upload personalized messages with their logo or name to any of our social media accounts. Personalized bamboo straws look fantastic across social media.

4.5.2 Price Strategy

Price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to the other in order to get the return for goods or services. It is essential as it determines our company’s profit and survival. Two factors affect our pricing strategy to maximize our earnings: internal and external factors. In our company, the external factor that affects our pricing strategy is marketing management cost, while the external factor is the competitive environment.

Our marketing management decided to sell the straw in four sets: A, B, C, and D. Our company decided to set the price at RM 10.00 for set A. This set includes the regular size Bamboo straw, brush, and pouch. Then SET B cost RM 12.00, including the Boba size straw, brush, and pouch. SET C and SET D are the same set, A and B, but they are more special because they include the engraving service. The engraving cost is RM 8.00 for each Set. As we mentioned before, our product provides size customization, so our customers can personally request for resizes the straw with the length they want, which costs RM 9.00 per set.

4.5.3 Place Strategy

Place strategy is also known as distribution strategy, wherein the organization decides the mode of distribution for the product. The pacing strategy plays an essential role in the product’s marketing strategy for development. We have chosen the market, cafe, or restaurant adjacent to the University Putra Malaysia. Our main target market is UPM staff and students.

Furthermore, we also decided to make it easy for our customers to find our product by using the shopping platform apps, Shopee apps. We chose these apps because Shopee is the go-to platform if you want to start selling online at a low cost and big money: commission-free selling and free shipping.

4.5.4  Promotion Strategy

Promotion is the marketer’s communication to provide information to different parties about the products. It is a communication process that involves data, persuasion, and influence on the customer. In order to get customers’ attention and obtain a more significant market share, Bamboos Sdn. Bhd uses `digital marketing, internet networking, or social media marketing.

We have set up social media accounts, Instagram, Facebook, Shopee, and Blogspot, to create awareness among people about our company. The marketing team will upload the promotional content to the social media platforms. This is because most people will be asked to stay at home due to this pandemic. With that, an online platform is the easiest way to buy anything that we want without going out. Moreover, online shopping has become trending in this era, and all these social media sites have become the hottest websites, especially Instagram, which has a high rating in advertising. Many companies use social media to advertise their product and service by putting their corporate information in their accounts.

Social Media Advantages

The advantage of using all these social media marketing is that it is free and can reach a large amount of the target market. We also use this social media platform to do the hard and soft selling.

We fully develop every post to maintain the originality of the post. In addition, we will continually update our post and story feeds to make sure the customers are more exposed to our product. Next, we also take advantage of the media’s hashtag usage. We are using hashtags such as #Bamboos, #SafeTheEarth, and more to make it easier for customers to find or provide feedback on our products. The marketing team uses WhatsApp, Shopee apps, and direct messages on Facebook and Instagram as the medium for the ordering process.

Similarly, we will place the generated links on each social media to facilitate the product ordering process. Our company also makes sure transactions with our customers are easy and user-friendly. Finally, we also produce videos to promote our sales, and using videos to promote products is the highest social media reach for views and engagement.

As for Bamboos Sdn. Bhd, we tend to focus more on WhatsApp groups, Shopee, and Instagram since our target market is more UPM students. In the WhatsApp group, many students are involved, such as on faculty, college or hostels, and club groups WhatsApp and Instagram are more popular among the students as the place they spend most of their time.

5.0 operations planning

5.1  Location and Places

The Bamboo straw will be sold via online platforms, and our company members in the warehouse will handle the process of manufacturing and packaging. The production team resizes and polishes the Bamboo at the warehouse in South City Condominiums, Seri Kembangan, Selangor. The online platforms are Instagram, Facebook, Shopee, Blogspot, and WhatsApp. The supplies will be directly delivered to the responsible members for further processing based on our customer’s order.

The bamboo stock was from a supplier via the Shopee platform, and the pouch supplies were from Giftstalk Sdn. Bhd. The company logo’s printing service was also included when we ordered the pouch from suppliers. Moreover, we order coconut fiber cleaning brush stock and packing Boxes from the Shopee. We also surveyed purchasing and made sure that our supplies were reasonable. All the supplies are ordered online and delivered to our company via specialized courier due to the Covid- 19 pandemic.

The bamboo straw will be customized and delivered to the customer using J&T Express, Ninja Van, and cash-on-delivery service, which will ease our delivery.

5.2 Objective of Operations

Our objective is to produce Bamboo Straw to ensure that all the equipment and material are run smoothly and to maintain that all products are effective and of good quality. We also must gain customers’ trust and satisfaction with our service, including preparation, packaging, and delivery. We also make sure our products are well sanitized and safe for use. In addition, our company has ultimate accountability for profit and loss and seeks to maximize return on investment for the shareholders.

5.3 Operation Strategies

A few strategies have been set up to ensure that our business runs smoothly throughout the week and meets our objectives.

Business plan sample

5.4 Supplier

We have discussed and surveyed many suppliers on the best way to provide quality materials at a reasonable price. Customer satisfaction is the biggest hope that a company can give as a company to them. Thus, we have decided on the following suppliers as our supplies providers:

  1. Wing.DIY –Shopee– For Bamboo Stock
  2. GIFTSTALK SDN BHD)- For Pouch Supplies
  3. Gd. Pack -Shopee)- For Paper Boxes Stock – Sandpaper Holder with Plastic.
5.5 Process Planning

Business plan - Process Planning

5.6 Implementation Schedule

Business Plan Example - Implementation Schedule

5.7 Machinery and Equipment Including GST

Business Plan Machinery and Equipment Including GST

6.0 Financial plan

6.1 Introduction

A financial plan can be defined as a process of framing objectives, procedures, and budgets regarding the financial activities of concern. This is done to ensure effectiveness and adequate financial and investment policies.

Generally, the financial plan is used to know an individual’s current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values, and withdrawal plans.

A financial plan is one of the most crucial parts of a business. Some of the importance of a financial plan are:

  • A financial plan provides the direction of one’s business.
  • It also helps understanding how finances impact one’s business.
  • Additionally, it helps to manage income better.
6.2 Objective of the Financial Department

A few objectives are as below:

  • Firstly, it determines capital requirements.
  • Secondly, it utilizes the fund sufficiently for different purposes.
  • Finally, it maintains proper cash flow.
6.3 Project Implementation Cost

Business Plan- Project Implementation Cost

Source of Fund

Our own money is used as the start-up capital with a contribution of RM100.00 per shareholder, bringing the total start-up to RM 1000.00.

6.4 List of Expenses

Business Plan Example- List of Expenses

Twelve partners contributed a total of RM1000.00 to cover all business expenses, which is RM 617.29, consisting of all cash expenses. Expenses are in terms of transportation (delivery), purchase of raw materials, equipment, and administrative fees.

The equipment is counted as fixed cost as they are bought in bulk. Refer to 6.4 (List of Expenses) for detailed information.

6.5 Record of List of Sales

Business Plan Record of List Sales

6.6 Income Statement

Business Plan Sample - Income Statement

After one month of business, BambooS Sdn Bhd ended up with RM 1600.00 from 7 different products. This includes selling 15 units of Set 1, 25 units of Set 2, 35 units of Set 3, and 30 units of Set 4. Leftovers for bamboo straws are found. The income statement shows that the business’s net profit after one month of operation is RM 988.39, approximately 98.8% of capital invested into the business.

6.7 Cash Flow Statement

Business Plan Example- Cash Flow Statement

The case flow statement shows that the initial capital on hand is RM 1000.00, and at the end of the business, the total surplus (after deducting all expenses) is RM 1982.71.

The RM 1982.71 includes RM 100 capital invested by every shareholder at the beginning of the business. By dividing the remaining money after deduction, each shareholder would find themselves receiving an extra RM 98.27.

6.8 Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet of Business Plan

At the start of the business (22 March 2021), the initial capital share is RM 300.00. There is no liability such as a loan.

At the end of 9 weeks’ business (22 June 2021), the cash on hand increased to RM 1982.71, as well as the owner’s equity. The firm’s net worth is RM 1982.71, done by subtracting liabilities from assets.

6.9 Financial Analysis

Financial Analysis Chart of Business Plan Example

Business Plan Example- Weighted Contribution Margin

BambooS Sdn Bhd has a net profit margin of 61.42%. BambooS Sdn Bhd also has a break-even point of RM 126.50. Sales passing this break-even point means that BambooS Sdn Bhd can start making profits.

Set 1 has a break-even point at RM 11.90 and set 2 have it at RM 23.72. The break-even point for set 3 is RM 55.34, while set 4 has a break-even point of RM 35.58.

The return-on-investment value for the business is 0.9827 or 98.27%. This means for every RM 1 capital invested in the business, the shareholders can get back RM 0.98 as profit.

7.0 Conclusion

 Based on the business plan or business proposal example that we have made, BambooS Sdn. Bhd. will give us profitable returns. The assumptions we made for these three months are conservative as we know that our company is still in the beginning, and the marketing and promotion are still in the early phase. The company sets systematic planning to reach the target. Thus, BambooS Sdn. Bhd. are very confident that our company will be able to grow in the future and become the most popular brand in the world.

We will always ensure that everyone in the company cooperates well in order to achieve the company’s target profit. We hope that BambooS Sdn Bhd. will be the best company that produces environmentally friendly straws for the customer of UPM students and staff and maybe all over the world.

Problem Faced and Solutions in Business

Every business will need to face many obstacles to sustain the industry’s success. As a new business, we also must face many things to achieve our company’s goal.

First of all, before we successfully finalized the product we would sell, everyone gave their opinions and ideas. This leads to 10 different products and services on the list. So we need to vote for the best one. We had faced a healthy argument on choosing the best product for the company. After brainstorming for a week, we finally came out with the idea of producing an eco-friendly product. We centralized the environmental issues and finally decided to produce and sell bamboo straw.

Moreover, we also have to face a conflict in choosing the supplier for our business. We need to find the best supplier that offers the most reasonable price for us to produce the bamboo straw. The cost must be tele with our starting capital. To solve this, everyone has done their research on all the possible suppliers until we find the best one to choose.

Finally, the issue of pandemic covid-19 is also making our job harder. we cannot go outside to search for the supplier and also cannot meet up with each other. So, to solve the problem, we decided to use the online platform to reach our suppliers and customers. We also keep in touch among the company members via What’s app and google meet.

Based on all the problems and solutions, we can see that we are managing to face every obstacle in our business journey if we cooperate well. Besides, the company’s goals and objectives make us stay motivated and committed to doing our jobs.

Business Proposal Examples For Students PDF

A business proposal is a short form of the business plan that persuade other organization to buy products. The business plan describes the organization elaborately. However, a business proposal includes an executive summary, problem statements, product, finance, and solution. The example of a business plan for students certainly guides others to write business proposal assignments for students. Students might learn how to write a simple business plan and proposal.

Additionally, the business plan example educates employees to make a professional business proposal for the stakeholders. It is also a perfect example of a business plan for eco-friendly products. Therefore, this business plan instructs students to write a green business plan sample.

Main Causes of Climate Change: Main Natural and Human Causes of Climate Change

Main Causes of Climate Change: The Main Causes of Climate Change. Major Causes of Climate Change. Natural and Human Causes of Climate Change. What are the Main Causes of Climate Change PDF?

Climate Change

Climate change means a change in the atmosphere of specific areas for a long time. It also refers to the new condition of the weather, including drought, temperature, rain, earthquake, snowfall, and so more. Climate change brings different weather to the Planet different than in previous years. The climate of the Earth has changed in the current decades. It is related to global warming, which is a much-talked topic globally. Global warming denotes increasing the temperature of the Earth. However, climate change not only mentions the rising temperature but also reduces the Earth’s temperature.

The temperature on the Planet has risen dramatically in the last 100 years. For instance, the Planet is 2 degrees Celsius warmer than last century. However, the Earth’s temperature has never been constant; instead, it evolves from time to time. The last five years were the warmest year in the current age. The top country leaders, including the prime ministers in America, Canada, and Australia aware of the climate change topic. World leaders and scientists have devised a vision to control the Planet’s temperature.

Climate change refers to the change in global climate patterns of the last century. Most scientists accept that it is a reality tied to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted through human activities, including fossil fuels, that emit greenhouse gases and trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise. The ten warmest years on record have all occurred since 1998. so how did we get here in 1769? James Watts’s version of the steam engine was patented. This innovation led to the widespread use of coal, a primary fossil fuel.

Main Causes of Climate Change

The two main causes of climate change are human and natural causes of climate change. Natural causes refer to the physical factors that contribute to the change of the atmosphere on the Earth. On the other hand, human causes mean artificial factors and people’s activities that change to climate on the Earth. Based on the studies, the author has outlined nine major natural and eight human causes of climate change on the Planet.

 Main Causes of Climate Change
The Main Causes of Climate Change are:
  1. Human Causes of Climate Change
  2. Natural Causes of Climate Change


Human Causes of Climate Change

Human causes refer to the people’s activities that change the atmosphere on the Planet. People’s activities affect climate change directly. Therefore, it is also known as the anthropogenic cause of climate change. Anthropogenic denotes human activities that pollute the environment. People pollute the environment directly, which changes the climate; it is the human cause.

What are the human causes of climate change?

The Major Human Causes of Climate Change are
  1. Burning Fossil Fuels
  2. Deforestation
  3. Livestock Production
  4. Fluorinated Gases
  5. Chemical Fertilizers
  6. Fluorinated Gases
  7. Industrial Gases
  8. Food Waste
  9. Transport Vehicles.

These are the crucial human activities that cause climate change on the Planet.

 1. Burning Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuel burning is the most crucial human cause that enhances the temperature on the Planet. Fossil fuels contain many carbon and hydrogen gases beneath the Earth’s crust. They are made from decomposing animals and plants. The most common examples of fossil fuels are natural gas, bitumen, oil, coal, tar sands, and petroleum. People burn fossil fuels to generate energy for electricity and transportation. Fossil fuels release greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), that trap heat in the atmosphere. So, burning fossil fuels is a catastrophic cause of global warming. They are the source of 80% of Earth’s energy that is not renewable.  The Earth’s average temperature has risen around 1 degree Celsius and sea level. As a result, people experience scorching weather in summer. It is also caused to biodiversity destruction, plant and animal extinction, and worsening health conditions of people globally.

2. Deforestation

Deforestation is another human cause of environmental change on the Planet that occurs to people’s activities. People are directly associated with deforestation, which affects biodiversity and the ecosystem on the Earth. Deforestation means cutting the forest areas by humans. People cut trees in the forest for urbanization, crop cultivation, and mining factors. Since 1960, deforestation has reduced the forest areas on the Earth excessively, which contributes to changing the atmosphere. According to the oxygen cycle, people inhale oxygen and exhale the carbon dioxide that trees consume. On the other hand, trees receive carbon dioxide and release oxygen for the respiration process.

The more trees on the Planet consume, the more significant carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Deforestation destroys the carbon stores and releases carbon dioxide on the Planet. It is a primary human cause of rising greenhouse gases and climate change. According to a study in 2019, deforestation is responsible for an increase of 11 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2).

3. Livestock Production

Livestock production is another primary human cause of climate change. It contributes to producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. Livestock production is the agricultural process of farming domestic animals, including breeding, caring for, and raising them. Nowadays, people farm domestic animals for commercial purposes to produce meat, milk, leather, etc. The most common animals in livestock farms are cows and sheep. These animals generate methane(CH4) when they consume and digest foods. A report shows that cows generate around 150 billion gallons of methane gas daily.

Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that contribute to raising the temperature of the Planet. Livestock production is responsible for producing 14.5 percent of greenhouse gases. Domestic animal farming produces a large carbon footprint that causes climate change. As people are actively associated with livestock, it is optimal to say that livestock production is an essential human cause of climate change.

4. Chemical Fertilizers

Chemical fertilizer is responsible for changing the climate on the Earth; therefore, it is another man-made cause of climate change. People produce chemical fertilizers to use in modern agriculture.

Chemical fertilizers are modern fertilizers formed with chemical syntheses such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, etc. These ingredients contain nutrients for the plants. Fertilizers containing nitrogen produce nitrous oxide emissions. The farmers use chemical fertilizers to get more benefits from the farm. Although these fertilizers help grow plants quickly and produce more corn and fruits, chemical fertilizers adversely affect the environment.

For example, nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers emit nitrous oxide (N2O), known as greenhouse gas(GHG). It is said that nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas produced by agricultural activities. Chemical fertilizers contain nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4+).  As a result, chemical fertilizer in agriculture generates critical greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrous oxide (N2O) traps the heat in the atmosphere, allowing shortwave infrared to enter the Earth and obstructing the longwave Infrared from returning toward the sun. The percentage of nitrous oxide in greenhouse gasses is 10-14 percent. People are responsible for producing 80% nitrous oxide through modern agriculture. The scientists warned the modern farmer to reduce chemical fertilizers in agriculture to combat the climate change problem.

5. Fluorinated Gases

Fluorinated gases are also human causes of climate change as people produce these gases for commercial purposes. The most common fluorinated gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), nitrogen difluoride perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). People produce these fluorinated gases as the elements of aerosol cans, air conditions, refrigerators, and so more. These gases are crucial materials for producing semiconductors in the factory.

Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases

    1. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    2. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
    3. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)
    4. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

The fluorinated gases are also powerful GHG that trap temperature in the atmosphere. Fluorinated greenhouse gases, also known as F-gases, are responsible for global warming. According to the report, fluorinated greenhouse gases affect global warming more than 23000 times more than carbon dioxide (CO2).

6. Industrial Gases

Industrial gasses include carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, noble gases, etc. These gases can be produced from two types of human activities: people intentionally produce them and industrial gases emitted from industrial factories. Firstly, people produce these industrial gases in factories for commercial purposes. They compress these gases into liquid in the cylinder to sell them in the market. Secondly, electrical factories generate carbon dioxide and nitrogen when producing goods and energy. In the United States, electricity production factories emit 40 percent carbon dioxide (CO2).

Industrial gases such as carbon dioxide and gaseous nitrogen materials are greenhouse gases that affect ozone depletion. The quantity of industrial gas emissions is increasing due to rising factories globally.

7. Food Waste

Food waste is one of the silent human causes of climate change that many people do not know.  For example, many people waste foods intentionally without knowing the negative consequences of food waste. Food waste occurs during processing and distribution from the seller to the buyer. It is estimated that Americans waste around 40 percent of their food yearly. Additionally, Americans waste around 27,000 gallons of water annually by throwing vegetables, fruits, eggs, and beef. Food waste produces methane(CH4) gas when it decomposes in landfills. Methane(CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas that causes global warming and climate change on the Earth. The study shows that around 6-8 percent of methane gas is emitted from wasted food. Therefore, food waste is a significant factor of climate change that many people do not know.

8. Transport Vehicles

Transport vehicles consume fossil fuels and emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most devastating greenhouse gas that raises the temperature. It is estimated that vehicles generate around 30 percent of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly in the last 30 years.

Natural Cause of Climate Change

Natural causes refer to the actual elements and actions that contribute to changing the atmosphere of the Earth. It is also known as the physical cause of climate change. Natural factors occur naturally from the natural cycle of the Planet. The most common physical causes are the Milankovitch cycle, ocean, gravity, forest fire, solar activities, volcano, and greenhouse gases(GHG). People can’t control these factors; therefore, these are known as natural causes. Some factors contribute to increasing temperature on the Planet; on the other hand, other factors trigger to reduce. These natural causes stimulate change to the condition of the Planet instantly and slowly.

Natural Cause of Climate Change

The nine physical causes of climate change are Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases.

1. Solar Activities

Solar activities mean releasing various types of radiation from the sun from time to time. It includes sunspots, solar flares, and solar radiation. For example, sunspots release more solar radiation than the regular portion of the sun, making the planet warmer. So, the sun’s heat depends on the solar activities driven by the sunspots. Recently scientists have identified many sunspots on the sun’s outer layer that emit a larger number of solar radiation. However, the temperature in the sunspot is lower than the natural part of the sun. It seems like a black hole that gets visible for the magnetic cycle. Sunspots occur from the storm on the surface. It is the most crucial factor in the sun that emits solar flares.

The sunspot’s temperature is around 3,800 degrees Kelvin, and the sun’s average temperature is 5,800 degrees, Kelvin. So, the sunspot’s temperature is lower than another part of the sun. Sunspots emit many ultraviolet rays that hit the Planet’s surface and increase the temperature. It takes 11 years to reach the sunspots on a peak known as the solar maximum. The solar minimum of the solar cycle occurs when a small number of sunspots are visible. In recent decades, the Planet’s temperature has risen 0.1 degrees Celsius due to solar maximum. It makes the sun brighter and the Planet warmer.

2. Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruption is a natural hazard that occurs naturally. It releases a massive number of dust, magma, and gases that affect the environment. The most adverse impact of the volcanic eruption is destroying the ecosystems. Many people can die from the eruption who stay near to the place. Additionally, it raises around 1100 degrees Celsius temperature of the surrounding area. The lava can set fire to the forest which causes forest fires. Volcanic eruption destroys animal diversity and the ecosystem when it occurs in the ocean. The dust and gases emitted from the volcanic eruption make a dark ash cloud in the atmosphere. This ash cloud works like a sheet that reflects the sun’s radiation. Solar radiation cannot enter the Planet due to the ash cloud in the sky. Therefore, the ground place gets colder than the average temperature.

Many people believe that volcano eruptions raise the Planet’s temperature that is not true. The boiling lava emitted from the volcano increases the surrounding temperature for a short time. However, the ash cloud reflects the solar radiation that makes the surrounding area colder for a long time.

3. Axial Tilt

The Milankovitch Cycle describes the entire process of the planet’s orbitals the sun. The Planet needs 365 days to move around the sun. At the same time, the sun needs only 24 fours to rotate on its axis.

Axial tilt is the angle of the Planet that occurs during rotation. It relates to the angle within the orbital and perpendicular plane. Axial tilt is also called obliquity. The axial tilt or obliquity is responsible for the various seasons on the Planet. The Planet is 23.5 degrees tilted from its orbital plane. Usually, the obliquity differs from a minimum of 22.1 degrees and 24.5 degrees during rotation. The season gets extended when the axial tilt is maximum, and the season gets shorter when the axial tilt is minimum. The Planet consumes more solar radiation when it rotates with maximum tilted towards the sun. In contrast, the Planet receives less heat from the sun when it tilts on the opposite side of the sun.

The cycle takes 41,000 years to get back to the ice age; people will see the ice age again after 41,000 years. The Planet is 23.5 degrees tilted towards the sun; therefore, it receives more heat from the sun. It is the reason for extended summer and winter on the Planet.

4. Precession

Precession is the transition of rotational axis adjustment for the gravity power. It relates to the action of the gyroscope power. It takes around 26,000 years to complete the entire cycle. The Planet wobbles towards the sun or opposite the sun after this period which contributes to the change in the climate. The Planet gets more solar radiation when it leans toward the sun for precession. On the other hand, it gets less heat when tilted opposite the sun. So, precession is the natural cause of changing the atmosphere on the Planet.

5. Eccentricity

Eccentricity refers to the Planet’s position while moving around the sun; therefore, it is called orbital eccentricity. The Planet takes 365 days to orbit the sun completely. The Planet does not follow the same path to move as the sun. We know that the planet moves around the sun in a circle that is not true. The Planet does not move the sun in the same way. Sometimes, it moves the sun elliptical way. So, it measures the deviation of the circular path of the Planet. Orbital eccentricity is included the deviation of the circular and elliptical way of the Planet’s movement around the sun. The variation of the Earth’s movement around the sun controls the solar radiation received from the sun. The deviation path sets the distance between the Planet and the sun.

The summer season is longer than the winter due to the orbital path variation- for example, it is around five days longer than the winter season. The Planet is located approximately 94.5 million miles away from the sun during the summer season. So, the Planet receives more solar radiation from the sun when it locates the farthest distance. It receives more heat, not for distance but the position of the Planet. In contrast, the Planet locates around 91.4 million miles far from the sun in the winter season. The Planet moves around the sun in a short distance during the winter season. The cycle takes around 100,000 years to complete the round. Now the position of the Planet and sun is not circular rather, it is elliptical in shape with an eccentricity e ≈ 0.0167.

6. Continental Drift by Plate Tectonics

Continental drift means the movement of the Planet’s plate tectonic called a change in the Planet’s crust. The Planet has seven continents, and the position of these continents is not constant. The research has shown that few continental drifts are moving slowly. The process of movement is prolonged. The movement motion is approximately 0.5 to 10 cm annually.

Hence, the movement of continental drift causes change the atmosphere on the Planet. It has both positive and negative consequences on the Planet. The continent is set on the Planet’s crust, and each continent is separated from another. The tectonic crust differs into two types: less dense and denser crust. These tectonic crusts move slowly and independently. The movement of these crusts is responsible for earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Few factors provide evidence of the Planet’s crust movement, such as crust collision, subduction, spreading, and movement fault. The plate tectonic collision is the main reason for the earthquakes. Recently, a study showed that the Himalayan mountain height has extended due to the clash between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

The collision between plates is also responsible for volcanic eruptions. It emits lava that is made from molten rock. So, continental drift is responsible for changing the atmosphere on the Planet.

7. Ocean Current

The ocean current refers to the continuous movement of the ocean waters. It is one of the crucial physical causes of changing the environment. The ocean current is formed from the gravitation power between the sun and moon, winds, and the Planet’s axial rotation. The ocean occupies around 75% of the Planet’s area; therefore, it absorbs most solar radiation from the sun. The solar radiation evaporates the ocean water and generates vapor gases(H20). Although the land receives some solar radiation, it returns some heat to space. The ocean release very little heat compared to the land areas. The solar radiation evaporates the water and creates the ocean current. The evaporation process raises the temperature in the surrounding areas on Planet. However, it makes rains through the evaporation cycle that reduces the temperature and humidity.

The ocean current melts the northern part’s ice, increasing the sea level. It is responsible for melting the ice in raising the sea level continuously. The Planet’s weather gets changes rapidly if there are no ocean currents. It warms the Planet.

8. Natural Forest Fire

Forest fires mean burning a forest for natural and human activities. Wild forest fire is the burning of a forest due to natural causes such s drought and lightning. It is a physical or biological cause of environmental change. Fires always create smoke, dust, greenhouse gases, and heat. These elements undoubtedly raise the temperature of the surrounding areas.

The most common types of forest fires are natural and human forest fires. Wild forest fires occur naturally without humans’ activities. On the other hand, human forest fires mean set the fire by people intentionally or unintentionally. Forest fires can burn millions of plants, animals, insects, and birds. Its impacts the ecosystem and diversity extremely. Studies have shown that natural forest fires are only 18 percent and artificial forest fires occupy 82 percent.

The warm temperature during the summer season triggers to set fire in the forest. It engulfs the entire forest within a short time. Although lightning and drought are responsible for setting fire in the woods, the wind soon spread the fires.

The forest fires can make a green forest into a dark desert. Forest fires release a large number of greenhouse gases, for example, carbon dioxide (Co2), methane (Ch4), and ashes. The greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide, traps the heat in space that increases the temperature of the Planet. Additionally, it spoils the soil nutrient and creates methane gases that contribute to raising the temperature of the Planet.

9. Natural Greenhouse Gases

There are two types of greenhouse gases: natural gas created naturally and greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Natural greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). These gases increase the Planet’s temperature by trapping heat in the temperature. The volcanic eruption, forest fire, and ocean current generate carbon dioxide and water vapor, greenhouse gases. These gases can be created without human involvement; therefore, they are natural greenhouse gases.

These greenhouse gases let the solar radiation enter the Planet easily; however, they trap the heat in space without letting them go back. So, the greenhouse gases stimulate to raise the temperature of the Planet.

There are two effects of climate change on the Planet: the direct and indirect impact of climate change.

1. Direct Impact of Climate Change

Climate change increases the maximum temperatures and reduces the minimum temperatures level. The prolonged maximum temperature melts the ice in the northern part and increases the sea level. Additionally, It raises the ocean’s temperature and brings a humid atmosphere. The higher temperature of the ocean evaporates water into vapor and makes heavy rains.

2. Indirect Impact of Climate Change

Climate change creates a water crisis, and the groundwater level is decreasing daily. In many developing countries, people suffer from water crises. These countries experience drought and flood every year. After all, it increases hunger and diseases among poor people. Climate change is directly responsible for to loss of diversity and ecosystem crisis. The contamination of the CO₂ and HCO3 concentrations in the water creates acid rain that bad for people’s health.

Climate change is also responsible for floods, erosion, landslides, and salinization. The sea level is increasing day by day due to global warming.


The author has represented the main human causes of climate change and natural causes that contribute to changing the global atmosphere. People cannot prevent the biological causes of climate change. However, people can prevent human causes of climate change by protecting the environment.

What are the Human and Natural Causes of Climate Change?
Human and Natural Causes of Climate Change PDF
Citation For This Article
APA- 7th Edition:

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022, January 08). Causes of Climate Change- Eight Human Activities That Cause Climate Change. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform.

MLA- 9th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M M. “Causes of Climate Change- Eight Human Activities That Cause Climate Change.” Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform, 08 Jan. 2022,