Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Examples & Explanation

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver's Model. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced a linear communication model in 1949 in the article THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Therefore, it is called Shannon and Weaver's communication model. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal-transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the "Feedback"; thus, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Initially, the Shannon-Weaver model excluded feedback; hence, it is a linear communication model. Therefore, it was an incomplete communication model for not including Feedback and different types of nonverbal communication cues.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback on the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver's communication model is called the "Mother of all Communication Models" for its extreme popularity. It is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

Shannon Weaver Model Linear or Transactional

Shannon and Weaver introduced the linear communication model with six elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. The authors did not add feedback to this model in 1949; therefore, it is a linear communication model. However, later the feedback was included by Norbert Wiener in 1950.

Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the "Feedback" in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) initially published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory, which explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model, including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear, as they did not mention feedback.

Shannon-Weaver Communication Model Examples of Situation

The 3 Examples Situation of the Shannon-Weaver Model are:

  1. Ordering Food Through Foodpanda
  2. Simple Job Application Email
  3. Listening to News on Radio
Shannon-Weaver Communication Model Examples of Situation-1: "Ordering Food Through Foodpanda"
  • In this scenario, the customer is the sender of the information who orders a meal through the Foodpanda Mobile App (Information Source).
  • The customer encodes messages and transmits them through a signal via a mobile application using TCP/IP sockets (Transmitter).
  • Mobile application is the channel to transmit messages from senders to receivers (Channel).
  • The communication might interfere with Electrical Noise generated random movement of electrons in the electronic device (Noise).
  • The device of food delivery is the receiver of the message. The delivery person and restaurant authority are the destination of the message who will process the food (Destination).
Shannon-Weaver Model Examples of Situation-2: "Simple Job Application Email "
  • The applicants write a simple job application email with a CV attachment (Sender or Source of Information).
  • The Gmail email software converts ideas into text messages to transmit them (Transmitter).
  • The internet-based email conveys the message to HR professionals (Channel).
  • Noise like spam filters or internet issues might interfere (Noise).
  • The HR manager receives the email and takes further action (Receiver).
  • The manager retains the email cover letter with the attached resume or forwards it to the concerned professional (Destination).
Examples of Situation of Shannon-Weaver Model-3: "Listening News on Radio"

Jon is listening to the morning news via the radio. The news presenter broadcasts news regarding today's weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report of the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system. The news presenter is the information source, the radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situations of the Shannon-Weaver model.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention "Feedback" in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model like the Aristotle model and Lasswell communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model for not adding "Feedback." Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included "Feedback" to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example, Eugene White's model and Osgood-Schramm's transactional model.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication are:

  1. Information Source.
  2. Transmitter.
  3. Channel.
  4. Receiver.
  5. Destination.
  6. Noise Source.
Shannon and Weaver model of Communication explanation
Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication
 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech to new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So students can not hear the lecturer's speech for a while.

2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal cues.

For example, the lecturer's speech is transmitted through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into a signal to transfer via an electrical current on the wire.

3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. Communicators utilize distinguished channels based on communication, such as human senses, radio, television, newspapers, electronic tools, social media, and so on.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

4. Receiver

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, the receiver is the decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver's Model, "when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver."

6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts effective communication. Communicators found noises in every communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so on.

For example, airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of Shannon and Weaver's Model

1. Explain IT-Based Communication: Firstly, Shannon and Weaver's theory enhances telephone communication by representing six essential elements. It articulates the signal-transmitting system through the medium. The model provides a clear and straightforward framework for understanding the technology-based communication process. This simple model can be used in multiple contexts.

2. Representing Key Components (Noise): For the first time, this theory explains the communication noises that barrier effective message transmission. Noise is a significant communication component. This model includes key components of the communication process including noise. Many communication theories avoid noise as the unwanted key component in communication. Controversly, it is the first linear model that explains noise as a fundamental element.

3. Diverse Applicability: Shannon and Weaver's model can be used to explain diverse communication contexts including interpersonal, social, mass, digital, and organizational communication.

4. Technological Relevance: This model was established in 1948; however, it is still relevant to analyze digital communication. Finally, Shannon-Weaver's framework is the first communication model that explains the message-sending process through an instrument. It has contributed to the development of telecommunications systems, digital coding techniques, and data transmission technologies.

Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Disadvantages

1. Linear and One-Way: Firstly, It is a linear communication model due to not demonstrating Feedback. The model describes that communication is a one-way process. However, most communication processes are two-way in directional manners. Therefore, this model is inappropriate for analyzing transactional communication processes like face-to-face discussions.

2. No Feedback: The Shannon-Weaver model does not include feedback in communication. Avoiding feedback is the major weakness of this model because every transactional communication holds feedback.

3. Focus on Technological Context: Shannon and Weaver's model highlights technological communication context overlooking social, psychological, and cultural contexts. Shannon Weaver's model was designed to explain mediated communication.

Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model o are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional communication model. Shannon and Weaver's Model was introduced in 1949 and is undoubtedly a linear communication model like Aristotle, Lasswell, and David Berlo's SMCR Model.

Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in the Bell System Technical Journal in 1948 known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model's implication for the effective communication process. They also renamed The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver's name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He co-authored the same article in 1949 and renamed it "The Mathematical Theory of Communication" while reprinting it in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver's model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

Shannon-Weaver’s Communication Theory Pdf Download-

A Mathematical Theory of Communication

Shannon, 1948 Reference
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communicationThe Bell System Technical Journal27(3), 379-423.
Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois Press
Citation For This Article - APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples.Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

Tuckman's Theory of Communication Stages With Advantages and Disadvantages

Tuckman's Theory of Communication. Bruce Tuckman's Five Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman Theory PDF.

Tuckman's Theory of Communication

Tuckman's theory refers to the five stages of the group development model developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is also known as Tuckman's model, Tuckman's theory, Tuckman's ladder, five stages of group development theory, Tuckman's team development model, Tuckman's theory of communication, and Tuckman's stages.

Bruce Tuckman introduced his four stages of group development theory in 1965. However, in the 1970s, he added the fifth stage to his four stages of group development theory. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen included the fifth and final stage in Tuckman's theory. The name of the fifth stage is Adjourning, which represents the happiness of achieving the interdependent group goal by the group members. So, it became known as Tuckman and Jensen's theory after adding the fifth stage.

Tuckman's Stages of Group Development

Tuckman's five stages of group development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. Additionally, a perfect theory describes how group members adjust and adapt to a group gradually.

Tuckman's Theory of Communication Five Stages Framework
Bruce Tuckman's Theory of Communication

Five Stages of Tuckman's Theory

The five Stages of Bruce Tuckman's Theory in Communication are:

  1. Forming Stage
  2. Storming Stage
  3. Norming Stage
  4. Performing Stage
  5. Adjourning Stage.
1. Forming Stage of Tuckman's Theory: (Orientation)

Forming is the first stage of Tuckman’s theory of communication, also known as the five stages of the group development model. Usually, members carefully explore both personal and group goals in this stage. They feel uncomfortable working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues trying to understand and test personal relationships. Member also orients itself to itself.

Group Develops in the Forming Stage: 

  • Ice-breaking” stage.
  • Group members are uncertain about their roles.
  • Mutual trust is low.
  • There is a good deal of holding back to see who is in charge.
  • Conflict is beneficial and leads to increased creativity.
Primary Tension

Firstly, group members feel social unease and stiffness accompanying the getting-acquainted stage in a new group. They become overly polite with one another. Additionally, members don’t interrupt one another. They often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions, also talk less, and provide little in the way of content.

How to Solve the Tension?

Firstly, the members should be positive and energetic so that other members build positive attitudes toward them. Secondly, smile and Laugh at others when interacting with them. Additionally, nodding in agreement and exhibiting enthusiasm is a useful non-verbal cue to hold effective interactions. Group members should also be patient and open-minded, knowing that the primary tension will decrease with time. Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting to help the group focus on its task.

2. Storming Stage of Tuckman's Theory: (Power Struggle)

Storming is the second stage of Tuckman's theory of Group Development. Group members become argumentative also emotional. The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership. Many groups try to skip this stage to avoid competition and conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing. The conflicts among group members are also known as noise in communication.

Group Develops in the Storming Stage:
  • Time of testing (Testing leader’s policies and assumptions and how they fit into the power structure).
  • Subgroups take shape
  • Subtle forms of rebellion occur
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
Secondary Tension in Tuckman’s Model

Firstly, frustrations and personality conflicts are experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group. Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence. They gain a high level of energy and agitation. The group becomes noisier, more dynamic, and physically active in this stage of group development. Usually, members start to speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking simultaneously. Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats. Finally, everyone is alert and listening intently.

How to Solve the Tension?

Making jokes is very important to avoid tension in the second stage of Tuckman's theory. They should work outside the group setting to discuss group members' difficulties and anxieties.

3. Norming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory (Cooperation)

Norming is the third stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Theory. Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and be task-oriented. They start developing “rules of engagement.” However, they feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open. Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge inside the group.

Group Develops in the Norming Stage:
  • Group more cohesive.
  • Less conflict with increasing team member interactions and interdependence of work tasks.
4. Performing Stage of Tuckman's Theory: (Synergy)

Performing is the fourth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development theory. Members become fully engaged and eager to work at this stage. Members adjust and adapt to the situation and also start solving critical problems. Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high in this stage. However, disagreements occur, but members usually resolve them intelligently and amicably. Finally, Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; the members are cheerful, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.

Group Develops in the Performing Stage:
  • Activity focused on problem-solving.
  • Work done without hampering others.
  • The climate of open communication and full engagement.
5. Adjourning Stage of Tuckman's Theory: (Closure)

Adjourning refers to the fifth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Group Development Theory. Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband. It also represents whether the group members will work together or form a new group. Finally, they are happy with their achievements but feel lost when the group dissolves.

  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
Group Develops in the Adjourning Stage:
  • Work completed; group moves on to other activities.
  • Opportunity for leaders to emphasize valuable lessons.
Tuckman's Theory of Communication

Tuckman's theory of communication has significant theoretical and practical contributions to research. The Five Stages of Tuckman's Theory of Communication are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Although in 1965, Tuckman proposed a four-stage group development theory but later added the fifth stage called adjourning. Tuckman's theory assists group members in subduing the group barriers. It also helps to adjust them in the group gradually.  Therefore, it is known as a group facilitation theory. Tuckman's group development theory consists of five stages that facilitate group formation and development.

Tuckman identified both the advantages and disadvantages of group communication; therefore, he provided suggestions for reducing the barriers to group communication.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman's Theory

The Tuckman model has both theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages. Many researchers have identified the pros and cons of the Tuckman theory. It is also known as the strengths and limitations of the Tuckman model.

Advantages of Tuckman's Theory
  1. Concise Framework for Understanding Group Dynamics: Tuckman's model provides a structured framework for understanding the natural stages of group development. It clarifies the specific stages of any group and team discussion; for instance, the five stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Tuckman's theory helps to understand more about primary and secondary tension generated from group communication. It also recommends reducing the tensions among members and influencing group activities. It is essential to reduce the tension among the group because the tensions are obstacles to achieving the group goal. Additionally, the theory strengthens the relationship among group members and motivates them to be productive. Finally, the Tuckman group developing theory shows the perfect successful way of solving group uncertainty issues and gaining interdependent goals.
  2. Predictive Capability: By recognizing the typical stages of group development outlined in the model, leaders can predict potential challenges and issues that may arise. This predictive capability enables proactive intervention to address conflicts, facilitate communication, and foster cohesion within the group.
  3. Facilitates Team Building: Tuckman's model emphasizes the importance of communication, trust-building, and goal-setting in group development. It guides leaders to actively promote team-building activities and create an environment conducive to collaboration and goal achievement.
  4. Enhanced Leadership Effectiveness: Understanding Tuckman's model allows leaders to adapt their leadership style to the needs of the group at each stage of development. Effective leaders can provide support, direction, and empowerment as necessary, facilitating the group's progress toward maturity and productivity.
Disadvantages of Tuckman's Theory

1. Oversimplification: Critics argue that Tuckman's model oversimplifies the complexities of group dynamics. Real-world groups may not always linearly progress through the stages, and the model may overlook individual differences, cultural influences, and external factors that can impact group development.

2. Focus on Conflict: The emphasis on conflict in the Storming stage of Tuckman's model may reinforce negative stereotypes about group dynamics. While conflict can be a natural part of group development, an overemphasis on conflict may neglect the importance of relationship-building and collaboration in achieving group goals.

3. Limited Practical Application: In dynamic and rapidly changing environments, Tuckman's model may have limited practical application. Groups operating in fast-paced settings may not have the luxury of progressing through each stage sequentially and may need to adapt more quickly to changing circumstances.

4. Neglect of External Influences: Tuckman's model primarily focuses on internal group dynamics and may neglect external factors such as organizational culture, leadership style, and external pressures. Ignoring these influences may limit the model's applicability in diverse organizational contexts.

5. Difficult to Maintain: Tuckman's theory consists of five important stages that are difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions to maintain effective communication and a good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no instant solution to solve all conflicts in group communication, although it suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts. Furthermore, Tuckman's model did not mention what would have happened if the storming stage did not end. Finally, Tuckman's model has failed to discuss why the group changes over time. These are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman's Theory.

Conclusion

This article offers elaborate information about Tuckman's theory of group development. It explains the five stages of group development in social groups. The author suggests tricks to reduce group conflicts and noise in communication. Finally, this article mentions the advantages and disadvantages of Tuckman's theory. Thus, this content benefits students, researchers, instructors, researchers, group members, and leaders. It enables the group leader to regulate the team properly to achieve common goals.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Tuckman Theory of Communication, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/tuckmans-model-five-stages-of-group-and-team-development-theory/
Tuckman 1965 Reference Apa 7th Edition

Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin63(6), 384.