## Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Examples & Explanation

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

## Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced a linear communication model in 1949 in the article THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Therefore, it is called Shannon and Weaver’s communication model. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal-transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; thus, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Initially, the Shannon-Weaver model excluded feedback; hence, it is a linear communication model. Therefore, it was an incomplete communication model for not including Feedback and different types of nonverbal communication cues.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback on the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is called the “Mother of all Communication Models” for its extreme popularity. It is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

##### Shannon Weaver Model Linear or Transactional

Shannon and Weaver introduced the linear communication model with six elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. The authors did not add feedback to this model in 1949; therefore, it is a linear communication model. However, later the feedback was included by Norbert Wiener in 1950.

##### Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) initially published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory, which explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model, including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear, as they did not mention feedback.

##### Shannon-Weaver Communication Model Examples of Situation
###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) to meet on Monday through the smartphone. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into a sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive messages via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the rain sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

###### Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 3

Jon is listening to the morning news via the radio. The news presenter broadcasts news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report of the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, the radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model like the Lasswell communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model for not adding “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication are:

1. Information Source.
2. Transmitter.
3. Channel.
5. Destination.
6. Noise Source.

### 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech to new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

### 2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into a signal to transfer via an electrical current on the wire.

### 3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. Communicators utilize distinguished channels based on communication, such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so on.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, the receiver is the decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

### 5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

### 6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts effective communication. Communicators found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

##### Importance of Shannon and Weaver Communication Theory

Firstly, Shannon and Weaver’s theory enhances telephone communication by representing six essential elements.

It articulates the signal-transmitting system through the medium.

For the first time, this theory explains the communication noises that barrier effective message transmission. Noise is a significant communication component.

Finally, Shannon-Weaver’s framework is the first communication model that explains message sending process through an instrument.

##### Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Disadvantages

Firstly, It is a linear communication model due to not demonstrating Feedback.

Additionally, this model is unsuitable for explaining the transactional communication process. For example, face-to-face communication is an example of transactional interaction.

Shannon Weaver’s model was designed to explain mediated communication.

##### Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model o are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional communication model. Shannon and Weaver’s Model was introduced in 1949 and is undoubtedly a linear communication model like Aristotle, Lasswell, and David Berlo’s SMCR Model.

##### Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948 known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication for the effective communication process. They also renamed The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He co-authored the same article in 1949 and renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting it in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

##### Shannon, 1948 Reference
 Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell system technical journal, 27(3), 379-423.
##### Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
 Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois Press
 APA- 7th Edition: Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2023). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication. Bruce Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman Theory PDF.

## Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory refers to the five stages of the group development model developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is also known as Tuckman’s model, Tuckman’s theory, Tuckman’s ladder, five stages of group development theory, Tuckman’s team development model, Tuckman’s theory of communication, and Tuckman’s stages.

Bruce Tuckman introduced his four stages of group development theory in 1965. However, in the 1970s, he added the fifth stage to his four stages of group development theory. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen included the fifth and final stage in Tuckman’s theory. The name of fifth stage is Adjourning, which represents the happiness of achieving the interdependent group goal by the group member. So, it gets known as Tuckman and Jensen’s theory after adding the fifth stage.

### Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development

Tuckman’s five stages of group development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. Additionally, a perfect theory describes how group members adjust and adapt to a group gradually.

### Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory

The five Stages of Bruce Tuckman’s Theory in Communication are:

1. Forming Stage
2. Storming Stage
3. Norming Stage
4. Performing Stage
##### 1. Forming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Orientation)

Forming is the first stage of Tuckman’s theory of communication, also known as the five stages of the group development model. Usually, members carefully explore both personal and group goals in this stage. They feel uncomfortable working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues trying to understand and test personal relationships. Member also orients itself to itself.

##### Primary Tension

Firstly, group members feel social unease and stiffness accompanying the getting-acquainted stage in a new group. They become overly polite with one another. Additionally, members don’t interrupt one another. They often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions, also talk less, and provide little in the way of content.

##### How to Solve the Tension?

Firstly, the members should be positive and energetic so that other members build positive attitudes toward them. Secondly, smile and Laugh at others when interacting with them. Additionally, nodding in agreement and exhibiting enthusiasm is a useful non-verbal cues to hold effective interactions. Group members should also be patient and open-minded, knowing that the primary tension will decrease with time. Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting to help the group focus on its task.

##### 2. Storming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Power Struggle)

Storming is the second stage of Tuckman’s theory of Group Development. Group members become argumentative also emotional. The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership. Many groups try to skip this stage to avoid competition and conflict Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing. The conflicts among group members are also known as noise in communication.

• Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
• Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
##### Secondary Tension in Tuckman’s Model

Firstly, frustrations and personality conflicts are experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group. Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence. They gain a high level of energy and agitation. The group becomes noisier, more dynamic, and physically active in this stage of group development. Usually, members start to speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking simultaneously. Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats. Finally, everyone is alert and listening intently.

##### How to Solve the Tension?

Making jokes is very important to avoid tension in the second stage of Tuckman’s theory. They should work outside the group setting to discuss group members’ difficulties and anxieties.

##### 3. Norming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory (Cooperation)

Norming is the third stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Theory. Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and be task-oriented. They start developing “rules of engagement.” However, they feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open. Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge inside the group.

##### 4. Performing Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Synergy)

Performing is the fourth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development theory. Members become fully engaged and eager to work at this stage. Members adjust and adapt to the situation and also start solving critical problems. Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high in this stage. However, disagreements do occur, but members usually resolve them intelligently and amicably. Finally, Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; the members are cheerful, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.

##### 5. Adjourning Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Closure)

Adjourning refers to the fifth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Group Development Theory. Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband. It also represents whether the group members will work together or form a new group. Finally, they are happy with what they have achieved but feel lost when the group dissolves.

• Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
##### Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory of communication has significant theoretical and practical contributions to research. The Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory of Communication are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Although in 1965, Tuckman proposed a four-stage group development theory but later added the fifth stage called adjourning. Tuckman’s theory assists group members in subduing the group barriers. It also helps to adjust them in the group gradually.  Therefore, it is known as a group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group development theory consists of five stages that facilitate group formation and development.

Tuckman identified both advantages and disadvantages of group communication; therefore, he provided suggestions for reducing the barriers to group communication.

The Tuckman model has both theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages. Many researchers have identified the pros and cons of the Tuckman theory. It is also known as the strengths and limitations of the Tuckman model.