Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components

Lasswell’s Communication Model Example. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model of Communication.

Lasswell Model of Communication

Lasswell’s linear communication model consists of five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. American psychologist and sociologist Harold Lasswell introduced a linear communication model in 1948. It is also known as the Action Model in communication. Harold Lasswell’s model describes the communication process with five questions; “Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom, and with what effect?” These are the five fundamental components of the Lasswell model. The researcher did not explain the feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. It was a significant model for explaining the verbal communication process.

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Example of Lasswell Model of Communication

A news reporter disseminates news regarding the negative impact of social media on BBC television to inform the general public.

Lasswell Model of Communication Components

The five components of Lasswell’s model are:
  1. Who
  2. Says What
  3. In Which Channel
  4. To Whom
  5. With What Effect

Harrold Lasswell’s model is also known as the 5Ws model for these five elements.

Who

Who refers to the sender of the message who initiates the communication. It also indicates the speaker and writer of the communication process. For example, the message’s sender is the news presenter, journalist, or political speaker.

For Example, A politician delivering a speech to mass people during an election campaign rally.

Says What

Says What refers to the message of the communication. The question “Says What” is intended to identify the sender’s statement. For example, a news presenter delivers a FIFA World Cup 2022 news update.

Another Example: The politician’s message may include promises of development and criticism of opponents.

In Which Channel

In Which Channel describes the message transmitting pathway. It shows how the information reaches target audiences. The channel of communication differs based on the communication way. For example, Television, radio, and newspapers are communication channels in mass media. In contrast, hearing, seeing, smelling,  and touching are message-transmitting channels in face-to-face communication. In non-verbal communication, the communication channels are “Physical Appearance, Paralinguistics, Body Movement, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Proxemics, Haptics, Chronemics, Artifacts, and Environment.”

Example: The politician’s speech may be delivered through various channels, such as live television broadcasts, social media platforms, or public appearances.

To Whom

To Whom describes the individuals to whom the message is delivered; it is also known as the receiver of the communication process. The receiver is the audience who receives the information. The sender disseminates the message through a particular channel to reach receivers (To Whom). For example, the news reporter conveys information to the audience who listens to them.

Example: The audience for the politician’s speech may consist of supporters, undecided voters, members of the opposing party, and journalists covering the event.

With What Effect

With What Effect illustrates the output of the message. It also validates whether the receivers comprehend the message or not. Sometimes, the sender cannot persuade the audience due to communication noise, faulty channels, and lack of speaker capability.

Example: The effect of the politician’s speech may vary among different segments of the audience. Supporters may feel inspired and energized, undecided voters may be swayed, opponents may become more entrenched in their views, and journalists may report on the speech in the media, influencing public opinion.

According to Lasswell’s communication model, there three functions of communication are Surveillance of the surroundings, Correlation of elements of society, and Cultural integration between generations. 

Lasswell Model of Communication  Examples

1. For example, if a news presenter broadcasts the FIFA World Cup information to inform Football lovers, we can relate the Lasswell model to this event. It analyzes who is disseminating information (News Presenter), What is saying (FIFA World Cup information), Which channel the news presenter is using to transfer information (Television), and “Effect” is the objective of the news.

2. Another Lasswell model example of a situation is the newspaper advertisement. We can see that the organization promotes its products via newspaper channels to inform customers.

3. Politicians address speeches on the Radio to motivate voters to vote for their parties.

4. Lecturers send assignment instructions to students via email to get their information.

6. An organization sends appointment letters to candidates through postal and courier services.

7. Students submit assignments to the lecturer on an A4 paper sheet.

8. The HR manager posts current company rules and regulations on the notice board to inform all employees. 

9. A writer publishes his latest book series for readers.

10. A motivational speaker gives a speech on how to lead a happy life with limited wealth through a YouTube channel. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model  of Communication
Advantages of the Lasswell Model

Firstly, the Lasswell model explains the information-transmitting process by throwing five questions to the readers. The answer to these questions indeed describes the whole communication process.

Secondly, the model is suitable for all verbal communication processes, including human communication.

In addition, this model has excellent heuristic significance, and the concept has been utilized in several types of research.

Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model

Firstly, the Lasswell formula is an outdated model of communication. Lasswell model does not indicate the feedback clearly to this model; hence, it is suitable to explain only one-way conversation but not transactional interaction like face-to-face interaction.

In addition, the Lasswell theory does not appropriately explain the nonverbal communication process since it mentions the “Who Say” component. In the nonverbal communication context, senders convey messages without spoken words.

Moreover, the Lasswell model cannot explain effective communication adequately, such as the interaction between two individuals. In face-to-face communication, both the sender and receiver provide feedback simultaneously. There is no feedback in the Lasswell model that can explain interpersonal and group interaction.

Furthermore, Lasswell’s model completely ignores the communication noise barriers to effective communication.

Finally, it is a propaganda-based linear model. This model focused on describing social and political propaganda.

Despite having advantages and disadvantages of the Lasswell model, it is still a famous model for students to study linear communication.

Lasswell’s Communication  Model Explanation

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Who and when establishes the Lasswell communication model?

Harold Dwight Lasswell’s short name (Harold Lasswell) established the Lasswell model in 1948.

What Type of Model is it?

Lasswell’s communication model explains a one-way communication process; therefore, it is linear, like Aristotle’s communication model, Shannon-Weaver’s communication model, and Berlo’s SMCR communication model. The linear communication model excludes feedback; in contrast, the transactional model includes it to explain two-way discussion.

Reference For This Article- APA 7th Edition
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components. Newsmoor. https://newsmoor.com/lasswell-model-of-communication-1948-examples-components/

In-text citation
According to Kobiruzzaman (2024)
In research from Kobiruzzaman (2024)

Aristotle’s Model of Communication Example & Explanation

Aristotle’s Model of Communication Example Situation, Elements, and Explanation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aristotle’s Model of Communication.

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

Aristotle’s communication model refers to the linear communication theory focusing on five elements: speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. Greek great scientist Aristotle introduced this most famous communication model in 300 B.C. that mainly focuses on the speech or the message. Hence, it is known as Aristotle’s communication model or Aristotelian model. The Aristotelian model is one of the most recognized communication models globally, emphasizing the speaker’s role in making a powerful speech. The Aristotle model focuses on public speaking, including how the speaker delivers a message to the audience. As this model was proposed before 300 B.C., it is regarded as the first communication model. Aristotle was a well-known Greek scientist and philosopher born in 384 BC in Stagira on the northern frontier of Classical Greece.

The three types of communication models are linear, interactive, and transactional. Aristotle’s communication theory is the initial linear model followed by Shannon-Weaver and Lasswell’s communication model.

The author of this content completed postgraduate degree in communication. He explains this model, including elements, examples, and advantages and disadvantages.

Aristotle’s Linear Model of Communication

Aristotle’s communication model explains a one-way communication process, which is a linear communication model. The linear communication model excludes feedback, whereas the transactional (two-way) model includes feedback. There is no feedback in Aristotle’s communication model; hence, it is known as Aristotle’s linear model of communication. 

Five Elements of Aristotle’s Communication Model

Aristotle’s communication model is designed to explain delivering a persuasive speech. The five components of Aristotle’s communication model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect.

Aristotle's Model of Communication
Aristotle’s Model
Speaker in  Aristotle’s Model

The speaker refers to the person who delivers the speech. It is the primary element of the communication process that initiates the conversation. Communication cannot be designed without a speaker. So, it is crucial in all verbal and nonverbal communication types.

Speech iAristotle’s Model

Speech is the message of communication that a speaker wants to deliver to audiences. The speaker delivers the speech to accomplish the goal. For example, a political leader produces persuasive speeches to motivate supporters.

Occasion in  Aristotle’s Model

Occasion means the context in communication that denotes the environment and represents why conversation occurs. The speech pattern can be distinguished based on the occasion. For example, a political leader delivers speeches based on the situation, including political campaigns and social and personal events.

Audience in  Aristotle’s Model

The audience is the receiver of the speech. The speaker addresses a speech to the audience. So, audiences are known as listeners. For example, supporters are the audience in the political campaign. The audience plays a passive role, impacted by the speech. There are two types of audiences such as active and passive audiences. This limits communication to one direction, from speaker to receiver.

Effect in Aristotle’s Model

The effect is positive ande ngative, the consequences of the speech. It measures whether the audience is persuaded or not. For example, a marketing manager provides a promotional speech to sell a product. Here, the effect refers to the buying attitude of the customers.

Example of Aristotle’s Model of Communication

The 5 examples of Aristotle’s communication model are:

1. A charity organization delivering an emotional appeal through Radio to collect funds for refuses (Pathos).

2. The Dettle company advertises their shop on Television mentioning how much bacteria it can protect(Logos).

3. A scholar delivering a lecture on global warming using credibility (Ethos)

4. An editor wrote and published fact-based articles in newspapers to create social awareness (Logos).

5. Receiving a no-reply email from the embassy informing passport has been received(Ethos).

Delivering Speech through Radio

For example, the NBC radio station(Context) broadcasted American 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s (Speaker) speech through fireside chats. The president explained (Speech) the new policies directly to the citizens(Audience). Franklin D. Roosevelt was an effective communicator, and his speech created a strong relationship(Effect) between the government and the general people. This situation is the best example of Aristotle’s model.

Advertisement on Television

A salesman (Speaker) advertises on Television (Context) to persuade customers (Audience) to sell a laptop at the best price. He delivers a promotional message (Speech) to convince the customers. Finally, the salesman manages to sell some laptops (Effect) through T.V. advertisement. In this context, the audience listens to the speakers without providing feedback. 

Political Speech Physically

Barack Obama (Speaker) delivers a speech to supporters (Audiences) to persuade them to vote for the Democratic Party in the general election (C0ntext) of the United States of America. For example, many voters decide to vote (Effect) for the Democratic Party after listening to the motivational speech.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Aristotle’s Model of Communication.

Advantages of Aristotle’s Model of Communication

Aristotle emphasised on the speaker’s role to convince audience in his model. Therefore, it benefits anyone looking to develop their public speaking abilities. The Aristotelian model states that the speaker needs to be aware of his intended audience. The speakers should prepare their speech based on audiences’ socioeconomic status, educational background, etc. 

In a corporate context, managers take three steps: Ethos, Pathos, and logos, to enhance organizational productivity. 

Aristotle’s model explains how to obtain more supporters with a persuasive speech on a sports team. 

Moreover, for researchers and students, Aristotle’s model serves as a motivating outcome of the systematic study of various aspects. It is also an instructive representation of the communication process that assists in system planning. It represents fresh perspectives and ideas on various topics, including verbal, written, and nonverbal communication.

Disadvantages of the Aristotle Communication Model

The three significant criticisms of Aristotle’s model are No Feedback, No Noise, and only Public Speaking Centered.

Criticism of Aristotle model of communication

The most crucial weakness of Aristotle’s communication model is that it is a linear communication process. It is considered to be a linear model of one-way communication. It did not include and explain feedback essential for the interactive communication process. Due to the lack of audience feedback and openness in this communication model, the conversation is ineffective.

Additionally, its credibility and usefulness are limited because it is only helpful for public speaking. 

Finally, Aristotle’s model shows no concept regarding noise barriers in communication. Noise is an unwanted but paramount element of the communication process.  

Aristotle’s Rhetorical Triangle

Aristotle described the rhetorical triangle as comprised of three elements: ethos, pathos, and logos. Any written and spoken speech is generated to persuade audiences. So, the writers and speakers should include the three rhetorical components ethos (speaker’s credibility and trustworthiness), pathos (emotional appeal), and logos (logical message or information). 

Ethos(Credibility)

Ethos refers to the information’s credibility and reliability. It ensures that the information comes from reliable sources and is safe to believe. For example, people will consult with an interior designer for office decoration but not with a lawyer. On the other hand, they will consult with lawyers for legal advice. Ethos ensures the person credibility who delivers the message.

Pathos(Emotion)

Pathos refers to the use of emotional appeal to persuade the audience’s attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Pathos taps into the audience’s emotions, values, and desires, aiming to evoke sympathy, empathy, anger, fear, or excitement. Unlike logos, which appeals to logic, and ethos, which appeals to ethics and credibility, pathos taps into the audience’s emotions, aiming to create a strong emotional connection and influence their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

In communication and persuasion, pathos plays a significant role in engaging the audience on a deeper level by eliciting emotions such as empathy, sympathy, anger, fear, or joy. By appealing to these emotions, speakers, writers, or advertisers can make their message more relatable, memorable, and persuasive. For example, in a speech advocating for environmental conservation, a speaker might evoke feelings of empathy by describing the impact of pollution on wildlife, stirring the audience’s emotions and inspiring them to take action.

However, it’s essential to use pathos ethically and responsibly, ensuring that emotional appeals are genuine.

Logos (Logic)

Logos refers to the use of logical reasoning, facts, evidence, and arguments to support the speaker’s position or argument. hence, it appeals to the audience’s intellect by presenting rational arguments, data, statistics, examples, and logical deductions.

Conclusion

The five essential elements of Aristotle’s model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. Speakers should follow Aristotle’s model to influence the audience positively when speaking in public. It is also a crucial model to motivate audiences. Many scholars extended this theory to establish other theories in different contexts. It is the most ancient model that provided communication concepts initially. 

Citation For This Article- APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Aristotle’s Model of Communication Example & Explanation. Newsmoor. https://newsmoor.com/aristotles-model-of-communication-example-explanation-elements
In-text citation
According to new research … (Kobiruzzaman, 2024)
In research from Kobiruzzaman (2024)