Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 by the article of THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Originally, the Shannon-Weaver model excludes feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback to the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is termed the “mother of all communication models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) originally published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory that explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear as they did not mention feedback.

Shannon-Weaver Model Examples of Situation
Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) through the smartphone to meet on Monday. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into the sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive the message via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the raining sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 1

Jon is listening to morning news via radio. The news presenter broadcast news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report for the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes the six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model due to not adding the “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are:

  1. Information Source.
  2. Transmitter.
  3. Channel.
  4. Receiver.
  5. Destination.
  6. Noise Source.
Shannon and Weaver model of Communication explanation
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech for new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So, students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into the signal to transfer via electrical current on the wire.

3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. The communicators utilize distinguished channels based on the communication process such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so more.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

4. Receiver

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, receiver is decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts the effective communication process. Communicators certainly found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, the airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional model of communication. Shannon and Weaver Model was introduced in 1949 and it is certainly a linear model of communication.

Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948; It was known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication on the effective communication process. They also renamed it The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He became co-author of the same article in 1949 also renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

Shannon, 1948 Reference
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communicationThe Bell system technical journal27(3), 379-423.
Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press
Citation For This Article
APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, November 23). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

MLA- 9th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M M. “Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples.” Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform, 24 Nov. 2021, https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

 

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap. Examples of the 5 Gaps of service quality.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality

What is the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model?

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality means Servqual gaps model that describes the customer experiences and service quality provided by the organization. It articulates the gap between customers’ expectations and the service provided to them in different stages of the service providing process.  The service quality will be high when the customers’ perception meets the expectation but the quality is low when the customer’s perception cannot meet the expectation. The Servqual model is also known as the 5 gap model that represents a customer-satisfaction framework.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap.
Figure 1: 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual Gaps Model
5 Gaps of Service Quality

The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are

  1. Knowledge Gap
  2. Policy Gap
  3. Communication Gap
  4. Delivery Gap
  5. Customer Gap
Gap 1: Knowledge Gap

The knowledge gap refers to the difference between the company’s perception of what the customer expects from the industry and the exact expectation of the customers. This gap can grow if management doesn’t focus on the customer’s expectations thoroughly.

There are many reasons that can increase the knowledge gap, for example:

  • Not focusing on what customers expect.
  • Lack of upward communication.
  • Insufficient market analysis.
  • Less focus on relationships.
  • Failure to understand customer complaints.
  • Lack of interaction between management and customer.
Example of the Knowledge Gap

The user of Netflix wants to see the upcoming movie trailers on the website. So, Netflix would suffer this gap if it did not provide the upcoming movie list.

Gap 2: Policy Gap

The policy gap is the difference between management perceptions of the customer needs and the translation of those perceptions into service delivery policies and standards. This gap occurs because of the dissimilarity of what the customer wants and what the management provides for the customers.

There are many reasons that can grow the policy gap, for instance:

  • First of all, Insufficient commitment to service quality
  • Additionally, Lack of task standardization
  • Moreover, Lack of goal setting
  • Further, Shortness of customer service standards.
  • Also, Inadequately described service levels.
  • Finally, Failure to continually update service level standards.
Example of the Policy Gap

Netflix will suffer from the policy gap if it uploads the upcoming movie trailers after releasing the movie. People want to watch the movie trailer before releasing the movie.

Gap 3: Delivery Gap

The delivery gap is the dissimilarity between the standard of the service delivery policies of the company and the actual delivery of the service. This problem may occur because of the communication gap, poor technology, and inappropriate supervisory on productions in the industry.

This gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry, for example;

  • Firstly, Lack of teamwork to deliver service or product
  • Secondly, the lack of knowledge of the employee about the product or service
  • Thirdly, Insufficient human resources.
  • In addition, the Service performance gap.
  • Further, the Role ambiguity and role conflict – unsure of what your remit is and how it fits with others.
  • Moreover, the Poor employee or technology fit – the wrong person or system for the job.
  • Also, the Inappropriate supervisory control or lack of perceived control – too much or too little control.
Example of Delivery Gap

Netflix may experience this gap if it uploads the lower video quality movie.

Gap 4: Communication Gap

The communication gap refers to is the gap between what the company advertises about the products and what exactly the customer gets delivered. It occurs when the company cannot provide services or products according to the commitment.  It is a very important dimension because it may lead to customer disappointment.

This communication gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry including;

  • Over-commitment.
  • Lack of integration between communication and production department.
  • Inadequate communications between the advertising teams and the operations department.
Example of Communication Gap

Netflix may suffer this gap if it is unable to telecast the HD video that promised to offer.

Gap 5: Customer Gap

The customer gap is the difference between customer perceptions of the experience and customer expectations of the service.  Many organizations are not conscious of this gap; therefore, they are losing a big number of customers overnight.

However, the 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness.

In conclusion, the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality is also known as the Gap model that intended to analyze gaps and problems between organizations and customers. Finally, the customer gratification will come out through the model that is a very important factor for continual improvement as well as the business.