## Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Examples & Explanation

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

## Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 in the article THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal-transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Initially, the Shannon-Weaver model excluded feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback on the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is called the “Mother of all Communication Models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

##### Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) initially published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory, which explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model, including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear, as they did not mention feedback.

##### Shannon-Weaver Communication Model Examples of Situation
###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) to meet on Monday through the smartphone. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into a sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive messages via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the rain sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

###### Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 3

Jon is listening to the morning news via the radio. The news presenter broadcasts news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report of the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, the radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model like the Lasswell communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model for not adding “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication are:

1. Information Source.
2. Transmitter.
3. Channel.
5. Destination.
6. Noise Source.

### 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech to new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

### 2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into a signal to transfer via an electrical current on the wire.

### 3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. Communicators utilize distinguished channels based on communication, such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so on.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, the receiver is the decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

### 5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

### 6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts effective communication. Communicators found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

##### Importance of Shannon and Weaver Communication Theory

Firstly, Shannon and Weaver’s theory enhances telephone communication by representing six essential elements.

It articulates the signal-transmitting system through the medium.

At first time, this theory explains the communication noises that barrier effective message transmission.

Finally, Shannon-Weaver’s framework is the first communication model that explains message sending process through an instrument.

##### Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Disadvantages

Firstly, It is a linear communication model due to not demonstrating Feedback.

Additionally, this model is unsuitable for explaining transactional communication processes such as face-to-face communication.

##### Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model o are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional communication model. Shannon and Weaver Model was introduced in 1949 and is undoubtedly a linear communication model.

##### Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948 known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication for the effective communication process. They also renamed The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He co-authored the same article in 1949 and renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting it in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

##### Shannon, 1948 Reference
 Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell system technical journal, 27(3), 379-423.
##### Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
 Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois Press
 APA- 7th Edition: Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2023). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

## SMCR Model of Communication- David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR Model of Communication- Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example Situation. Berlo’s Model of Communication.

## SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR communication model refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver formed communication theory developed by David Berlo in 1960. In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR communication model with four elements: Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver, which are essential elements of any communication process. Therefore, the SMCR communication model is known as Berlo’s Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model. Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective. SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the primary communication process.

There are three types of communication models: linear, interactive, and transactional communication models. The SMCR communication model refers to the one-way communication system. So, the SMCR model is a linear model of communication where feedback is absent.

### Berlo’s Model of Communication Example

Watching television news is a real-life example of David Barlo’s SMCR communication model. It is also known as Berlo’s model of communication example situation. The four essential elements of Barlo’s model are the source, message, channel, and Receiver. Firstly, the news presenter is the source of the news who disseminates the information. The report is the message, and television is the channel. Finally, the audiences are the receivers of the message who watch the television.  In this context, the audience cannot provide feedback. It is also a one-way communication process where the feedback is not presented. Similarly, reading newspapers is another example of Barlo’s model of communication. Print and broadcast journalism mostly relates to one-way communication.

However, digital journalism, including social media-based citizen journalism and blogging, generates two-way communication, also known as the transactional communication model. The audience can comment to express their opinion.

For example, you watch television, read books, newspapers, and magazines, and hear an announcement.

1. Source
2. Message
3. Channel

### 1. Source

The source means the message’s sender who initiates the communication process by sending information to the Receiver. David Berlo describes five factors related to the source: Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.

##### Communication skills

Communication skills refer to the ability to speak, read, write, and listen effectively. It also indicates the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. Communication will be more effective if the senders and receivers both have excellent communication skills. The most common nonverbal communication examples are eye contact, facial expression, body language, gesture, posture, and so more.  The communication skill of the source or sender increases the effectiveness of the communication process.

##### Attitude

Attitude is the psychological factor of the sender and Receiver that affects the meaning of the message. It is also an established perception of a person in which they think or feel about something. Thus, the meaning of the message depends on the source’s attitude and the Receiver.

##### Knowledge

Knowledge indicates the level of actual information, familiarity, and experience on the discussion topic. Actually, the discussion topic is the message of the communication process. Therefore, the communicator feels comfortable discussing if the topic is familiar to them. However, knowledge does not imply the educational qualification or degrees of the sender or receiver.

For example, a football player will be more interested in talking about football than cricket. On the other hand, a cricket player will surely feel comfortable discussing a cricket game. Here, knowledge indicates familiarity with the subject of the discussion topic or message.

##### Social Systems

Social systems refer to the values, beliefs, behaviors, rules and regulations, locations, and religions. These factors influence the method of the communication process as well as the meaning of the message.

For example, the speaker delivers an anti-America message in the American parliament election campaign. It is considerably sure that the audience will not receive and listen to his message attentively. It is an example of a location factor that is also part of the social system.

##### Culture

Culture refers to the social background of the Sender and Receiver. The meaning of the same message might be identical when people from different cultures interpret it. It is a significant factor from the perspective of nonverbal communication cues.

For example, exchanging “Salam” greetings among men and women is widespread in the Muslim community. Salam conveys the greeting message in the Muslim community; however, handshaking is another activity that also exchanges the same mean. On the other hand, handshaking is a standard greeting among men and women in Western culture.

### 2. Message

The message is the primary substance conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the Receiver. David Berlo proposed another five factors related to the message: Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code.

##### Content

Content refers to the entire body of the message from beginning to end. It is essential information for the discussion. Content is the whole script of the conversation.

For example, the lecturer is teaching students about noise in communication. So, the full speech about communication noise is the content of the message.

##### Elements

Elements refer to nonverbal communication cues such as facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, and body movement. It makes the conversation more effective and productive. So, the communication might get boring without elements.

For example, the lecturer raises five fingers when mentioning the five basic noises in the communication process.

##### Treatment

Treatment refers to the communication way in which the message is conveyed to the audience. The communication way affects the communication system. It represents the message packaging. The examples of treatment in communication are delivering messages formally and casually.

For example, the teachers speak formally when delivering speeches in the classroom. However, the lecturer talks very casually when meeting students outside of class.

##### Structure

The structure of the message describes the arrangement of the information. The effectiveness of the message depends on the message structure.

For example, the lecturer talks about the definition, types, and examples of communication noise. The students perceive the message clearly for its good arrangement.

##### Code

Code in the message refers to the form of message transmitting. The examples of the code are text, audio, video, visual, and so more.

For example, the teacher is speaking in front of the students; hence, the code of the message is audio.

### 3. Channel

Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from sender to Receiver. There are many types of channels in communication, such as radio, newspapers, TV, phone call, and social media. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the communication channel: hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. These five channels are a crucial part of the human communication process.

For example, the face to face class is more effective than an online class. The students can see the lecturer physically and hear the lecture. Nowadays, many institutes conduct virtual classes through premium. The channels denote the physical and virtual communication way to convey messages.

David Berlo mentions only five human senses as the communication channel, such as Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting.

##### Hearing

People receive messages through listening. It is the most significant channel in the communication process. For example, students hear lectures in the classroom.

##### Seeing

People accept messages through seeing. It is one of the crucial channels in nonverbal communication. People take less than one second to judge others by seeing their appearance. The audiences form a conception of the speaker based on body movement, facial expression, eye contact, and gesture. A proverb says that people can lie, but eyes never lie. It means people believe what they see more than what they hear.

For example, a lecturer asks students about their final exam. The student reply that it was an excellent exam; however, the student looks very worried while interacting with the lecturer. So, the lecturer does not believe the statement due to seeing the worried face. Watching television is another example of seeing channels in communication.

##### Touching

Touch refers to an effective nonverbal communication channel that conveys messages through touching. It is also known as Haptics in Nonverbal Communication. The most common example of touching channels in communication is holding hands, hugging, tickling, and kissing. These touching styles represent different messages.

##### Smelling

Smelling is another channel of the intrapersonal communication process.  The intrapersonal communication process means communicating with yourself. It is also known as olfactics nonverbal communication. People judge others based on the Fragrance they have used. A good smell creates a positive attitude toward the person. The perspiration odors form a negative perception of the person.

For example, people smell flowers and fragrances to identify whether the flavor is good or bad.

##### Tasting

Tasting refers to nonverbal communication channels through tasting something. For example, people test food to identify its deliciousness.

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. David Berlo adds the same factors of the sources to the Receiver, such as Communication skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture, to the Receiver. Communication gets more effective when senders and receivers have similar skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Communication among people from the same culture and social system reduces communication noise during the interaction.

##### Importance of the Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model

Berlo’s communication model explains the communication system with four primary and 15 sub-components. It shows a giant diagram to describe the process thoroughly.

The source or sender and receiver contain similar components. This model articulates that the sender and receiver convey and receive messages simultaneously. It indicates interactive communication even though it is a linear communication model.

##### Disadvantages of the Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication is the linear communication model; therefore, feedback is absent. Hence, the SMCR model can’t explain the transactional communication processes like speaking over a smartphone.

Additionally, it illustrates a complex communication model that is difficult to understand.

Moreover, Berlo’s SMCR communication model avoids noise, a significant communication element. It excludes another communication element- context. It is impossible to describe the communication process without noise and context.

###### Conclusion

It is one of the significant linear communication models that describe the communication process through multiple elements, including Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver.