Gap Model of Service Quality- 5 Gap Model of Service Quality With Examples

Gap Model of Service Quality- 5 Gap Model of Service Quality With Examples. Gaps Model. Service Quality Gap Model. Service Quality Gaps. Gaps Model. 5 Gaps of Service Quality. Gap Model of Customer Satisfaction.

Gap Model of Service Quality

The gap model of service quality refers to the five gaps model that describes gaps in service quality of the organization’s customer experiences and service quality. In 1985, four scholars, namely A. Parasuraman, Valarie Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry, introduced the gap model of service quality in the journal of marketing manuscript titled “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Further Research.” It is also known as the service quality gap model.

This model articulates the gap between customers’ expectations and the service provided by the organizations. It assists service-providing companies in identifying customer satisfaction in different stages of the service delivery process. The service quality will be high when the customers’ perception meets the expectation, but the quality is low when the customer’s perception cannot meet the expectation.

Gap Model of Service Quality- 5 Gap Model of Service Quality With Examples. Gaps Model. Service Quality Gap Model. Service Quality Gaps. Gaps Model. 5 Gaps of Service Quality. Gap Model of Customer Satisfaction.
5 Gap Model of Service Quality

Servqual Gap Model

SERVQUAL Model evaluates the gaps between clients’ expectations and perceptions of service quality with five major service dimensions: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness. The Servqual model of service quality assesses the customers’ expectations and perceptions; therefore, many scholars call it the Servqual gap model. Hence, many service-providing companies utilize the gaps model to identify and improve the clients’ satisfaction. The Servqual gap model, also known as the five gap model of service quality, represents a customer-satisfaction framework. However, the Survqual model is also known as the five dimensions of service quality.

5 Gap Model of Service Quality

The 5 Gaps in Service Quality are
  1. Knowledge Gap
  2. Policy Gap
  3. Communication Gap
  4. Delivery Gap
  5. Customer Gap

5 Gap Model of Service Quality With Examples

Gap- 1. Knowledge Gap

The knowledge gap in service quality refers to the gap between customers’ expectations of the company and its action of providing that service. It identifies what customers want from the industry and what the company typically offers to the customers. This gap can grow if management doesn’t focus on the customer’s expectations thoroughly.

Many reasons can increase the knowledge gap, for example:

Firstly, the knowledge gap in service quality increases when the industry does not carefully focus on what customers expect. Secondly, the knowledge gap increases due to a lack of upward communication and customer interaction. Thirdly, the insufficient market analysis also raises the knowledge gap.

The additional reasons for increasing the knowledge gap:

  • Less focus on relationships.
  • Failure to understand customer complaints.
  • Lack of interaction between management and customer.
Example of the Knowledge Gap in Service Quality

The user of Netflix wants to see the upcoming movie trailers on the Netflix official website. However, Netflix shows only the movie list on the site without knowing the customer’s expectations.  So, Netflix would suffer this gap if it did not provide the upcoming movie trailers on the site. Netflix change management certainly fulfills the gap between customer perception and expectation in order to achieve competitive advantages.

Gap 2: Policy Gap

The policy gap is the difference between management perceptions of the customer needs and the translation of those perceptions into service delivery policies and standards. This policy gap appears because of the dissimilarity between what the customer wants and what management provides for the customers.

Many reasons can grow the policy gap, for instance:

Firstly, the policy gap in service quality rises when the company has an insufficient commitment to service quality. Secondly, the lack of task standardization extends the policy gap. Moreover, the lack of goal setting raises this gap.

The additional reasons for increasing the policy gap:

  • Shortness of customer service standards.
  • Inadequately described service levels.
  • Failure to continually update service level standards.
Example of the Policy Gap

Netflix will suffer from the policy gap if it uploads the upcoming movie trailers after releasing the movie. People want to watch the movie trailer before releasing the film. So, Netflix should be more responsive to the customers and commit to uploading the film trailer soon.

Gap 3: Delivery Gap

The delivery gap is the dissimilarity between the standard of the service delivery policies of the company and the actual delivery of the service. The delivery gap in service quality arises when the company cannot maintain the standard of products and services provided to customers. This gap may occur because of the communication gap, poor technology, and inappropriate supervisory on productions in the industry.

This gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry, for example;

Firstly, the lack of teamwork to deliver services or products triggers an increasing delivery gap. Secondly, the employee’s lack of knowledge about the product or service grows the delivery gap. Thirdly, the insufficient human resources extend this gap.

The additional reasons for increasing the policy gap:

  • Role ambiguity and role conflict are unsure of your remit and how it fits others.
  • Poor employee or technology fit – is the wrong person or system for the job.
  • Inappropriate supervisory control or lack of perceived control – too much or too little control.
Example of Delivery Gap

Netflix may experience this gap if it uploads a lower video quality film. The customers prefer to watch films with high-quality regulations like HDR. However, Netflix streams films with 4K at 2160p, which reduces the delivery gap.

Gap 4: Communication Gap

The communication gap refers to the difference between what the company advertises about the products and what the customer gets delivered. It occurs when the company cannot provide services or products according to the commitment. It is a very important dimension because it may lead to customer disappointment.

This communication gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry, including;

  • Over-commitment.
  • Lack of integration between communication and production department.
  • Inadequate communications between the advertising teams and the operations department.
Example of Communication Gap

Netflix may suffer this gap if it is unable to telecast the HDR video that it promised to offer. So, Netflix should not commit to customers if they cannot stream HDR video on the site.

Gap 5: Customer Gap

The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and perceptions of the service. This customer gap might appear if customers cannot understand the importance of the services and products. The customer gap also arises when clients misunderstand the service quality. Many organizations are not conscious of this gap; therefore, they are losing many customers overnight.

Conclusion

The five gaps in the service quality gap model are Knowledge, Policy, Communication, Delivery, and Customer. The five gaps model of service quality is known as the Gap model. The gap model of service quality analyzes gaps and problems between organizations and their customers. Customer gratification will come out if the industry adopts the gap model diagram, which is a very important factor for continual improvement as well as the business. Therefore, the service provides industries like hospitals, hotels, restaurants, entertainment & recreational companies, and education and tourism agencies focus more on the gap model to improve customer satisfaction. For example, the Global Assistant Education Consultant concentrates on the gap model to gratify their prospective and existing customers.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap.

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour- VALS 2 Model

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour. Vals segmentation examples. The Eight Segments of the VALS Model. Marketing Model of VALS, Vals 2 model, and also Vals framework examples.

VALS Segmentation Model

VALS Segmentation Model refers to the VALS 2 model that segments people into eight categories based on their lifestyles, psychological characteristics, and consumption patterns. Therefore, people term it as the Vals audience segmentation model in consumer behavior. The VALS is the acronym of Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles also psychographic factors.

However, demographic and geographic psychographic segmentation is the most significant market segmentation technique to divide people into identical subgroups.

In 1978, the research institute of Stanford established Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to develop a VALS (Values and Lifestyles) typology to categorize American consumers. In 1989, they created a quietly modified system that considers individuals’ lifestyles, psychological characteristics, also consumption patterns.

Another name of the VALS Segmentation Model is the VALS 2 Model. VALS Segmentation Model divides people into eight categories: survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and innovators.

VALS Framework Examples
8 Segmentations of the VALS 2  Model are:
  1. Survivors
  2. Makers
  3. Strivers
  4. Believers
  5. Experiencers
  6. Achievers
  7. Thinkers
  8. Innovators
VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour- VALS 2 Model
Figure 1: VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour

Demographic Segmentation Example

1. Survivors/ Strugglers

Firstly, Survivors or strugglers are financially needy people. In contrast to innovators, they are poor, low-skilled, ill-educated, without strong social bonds, elderly and passive. They avoid risk because of feeling powerless. It seems like their prime motive is to meet safety and security demands.

For example, students are survivors.

2. Makers

Makers are practical people with strong traditional values, constructive skills, self-sufficiency, and enough income. They live within a conventional context of family, practical work, and also physical recreation. Makers are suspicious of new ideas, politically conservative, and respectful of government authority but resentful government intrusion on individual rights.

For example, a religious leader has traditional values.

3. Strivers

Strivers are attracted to others who exhibit qualities that they don’t have but that they admire. They inquire about motivation and self-definition. They expect to achieve goals through wealth and often feel that life has dealt them a bad hand because of the less money. Strivers feel easily bored because they are very impulsive.

For example, an unemployed person is looking for a job after completing graduation.

4. Believers

Believers belong to a very conservative and profoundly moral mentality similar to makers. They seem like makers because of having conservative and traditional values. They follow established routines organized by the family, social and religious organizations. Their income, education, and energy are enough to meet demands.

For example, an adult person retired from government service.

5. Experiencers

Experiencers are very young, energetic, enthusiastic, impulsive, and rebellious people. They seek a variety of excitements but are politically uncommitted and highly ambivalent about what they believe. They like to be associated with outdoor activities, sports, recreational, and social activities.

For example, a teenager is an experiencer.

6. Achievers

Actually, achievers are work-oriented successful people. They like to feel in control of their lives. They are also deeply committed to work and keep promises to family, society, and career. Achievers respect authority because they prefer to keeping the promise but are politically conservative.

For example, an employed person is an achiever.

7. Thinkers/ Fulfilled

Thinkers are enough adult and mature, well-educated, professional people with satisfying income. They stay current with international and national events and are often tended to increase knowledge. They are usually calm and self-assured because they depend on their decisions.

For example, a successful business is a thinker.

8. Innovators/ Actualizers

Finally, Innovators are highly successful people with self-esteem and considerable resources in contrast to strugglers. Innovators are supervised by both their principle and by the dreams around them. They want to be a leader in government and business because of having enormous power and social consciousness.

For example, a political leader is an innovator who can change society with power.

Conclusion

The Eight Categories of the VALS Segmentation Model are survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and innovators. VALS Framework has become a crucial strategy to target audiences for political campaigns and product marketing. Nowadays, many organizations conduct digital marketing campaigns on social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, etc.