VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour- VALS 2 Model

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour. Vals segmentation examples. The Eight Segments of the VALS Model. Marketing Model of VALS, Vals 2 model, and also Vals framework examples.

VALS Segmentation Model

VALS Segmentation Model refers to the VALS 2 model that segments people into eight categories based on their lifestyles, psychological characteristics, and consumption patterns. Therefore, people term it as the Vals audience segmentation model in consumer behavior. The VALS is the acronym of Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles also psychographic factors.

However, demographic and geographic psychographic segmentation is the most significant market segmentation technique to divide people into identical subgroups.

In 1978, the research institute of Stanford established Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to develop a VALS (Values and Lifestyles) typology to categorize American consumers. In 1989, they created a quietly modified system that considers individuals’ lifestyles, psychological characteristics, also consumption patterns.

Another name of the VALS Segmentation Model is the VALS 2 Model. VALS Segmentation Model divides people into eight categories: survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and innovators.

VALS Framework Examples
8 Segmentations of the VALS 2  Model are:
  1. Survivors
  2. Makers
  3. Strivers
  4. Believers
  5. Experiencers
  6. Achievers
  7. Thinkers
  8. Innovators
VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour- VALS 2 Model
Figure 1: VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour

Demographic Segmentation Example

1. Survivors/ Strugglers

Firstly, Survivors or strugglers are financially needy people. In contrast to innovators, they are poor, low-skilled, ill-educated, without strong social bonds, elderly and passive. They avoid risk because of feeling powerless. It seems like their prime motive is to meet safety and security demands.

For example, students are survivors.

2. Makers

Makers are practical people with strong traditional values, constructive skills, self-sufficiency, and enough income. They live within a conventional context of family, practical work, and also physical recreation. Makers are suspicious of new ideas, politically conservative, and respectful of government authority but resentful government intrusion on individual rights.

For example, a religious leader has traditional values.

3. Strivers

Strivers are attracted to others who exhibit qualities that they don’t have but that they admire. They inquire about motivation and self-definition. They expect to achieve goals through wealth and often feel that life has dealt them a bad hand because of the less money. Strivers feel easily bored because they are very impulsive.

For example, an unemployed person is looking for a job after completing graduation.

4. Believers

Believers belong to a very conservative and profoundly moral mentality similar to makers. They seem like makers because of having conservative and traditional values. They follow established routines organized by the family, social and religious organizations. Their income, education, and energy are enough to meet demands.

For example, an adult person retired from government service.

5. Experiencers

Experiencers are very young, energetic, enthusiastic, impulsive, and rebellious people. They seek a variety of excitements but are politically uncommitted and highly ambivalent about what they believe. They like to be associated with outdoor activities, sports, recreational, and social activities.

For example, a teenager is an experiencer.

6. Achievers

Actually, achievers are work-oriented successful people. They like to feel in control of their lives. They are also deeply committed to work and keep promises to family, society, and career. Achievers respect authority because they prefer to keeping the promise but are politically conservative.

For example, an employed person is an achiever.

7. Thinkers/ Fulfilled

Thinkers are enough adult and mature, well-educated, professional people with satisfying income. They stay current with international and national events and are often tended to increase knowledge. They are usually calm and self-assured because they depend on their decisions.

For example, a successful business is a thinker.

8. Innovators/ Actualizers

Finally, Innovators are highly successful people with self-esteem and considerable resources in contrast to strugglers. Innovators are supervised by both their principle and by the dreams around them. They want to be a leader in government and business because of having enormous power and social consciousness.

For example, a political leader is an innovator who can change society with power.

Conclusion

The Eight Categories of the VALS Segmentation Model are survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and innovators. VALS Framework has become a crucial strategy to target audiences for political campaigns and product marketing. Nowadays, many organizations conduct digital marketing campaigns on social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, etc.

SMCR Model of Communication- David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR Model of Communication- Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example Situation. Berlo’s Model of Communication.

SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR communication model refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model of communication developed by David Berlo in 1960. In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR communication model with four elements: Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver, which are essential elements of any communication process. Therefore, the SMCR model of communication is known as Berlo’s Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model. Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective. SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the primary communication process.

There are three types of communication models: the linear, interactive, and transactional communication models. SMCR communication model refers to the one-way communication system. So, the SMCR model is a linear model of communication where feedback is absent.

Models of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication Example

Watching television news is a real-life example of David Barlo’s SMCR model of communication. It is also known as Berlo’s model of communication example situation. The four essential elements of Barlo’s model are the source, message, channel, and Receiver. Firstly, the news presenter is the source of the news who disseminates the information. The news is the message, and television is the channel. Finally, the audiences are the receivers of the message who watch the television.  In this context, the audience cannot provide feedback. It is also a one-way communication process where the feedback is not presented. Similarly, reading newspapers is another example of Barlo’s model of communication. Print and broadcast journalism mostly relates to one-way communication.

However, digital journalism, including social media-based citizen journalism and blogging, generates two-way communication, also known as the transactional communication model. The audience can comment to express their opinion.

For example, you watch television, read books, newspapers, and magazines, and hear an announcement.

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Figure 1: David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication

The Four Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication are:
  1. Source
  2. Message
  3. Channel
  4. Receiver

1. Source

The source means the message’s sender who initiates the communication process by sending information to the Receiver. David Berlo describes five factors related to the source: Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.

Communication skills

Communication skills refer to the ability to speak, read, write, and listen effectively. It also indicates the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. Communication will be more effective if the senders and receivers both have excellent communication skills. The most common nonverbal communication examples are eye contact, facial expression, body language, gesture, posture, and so more.  The communication skill of the source or sender increases the effectiveness of the communication process.

Attitude

Attitude is the psychological factor of the sender and Receiver that affects the meaning of the message. It is also an established perception of a person in which they think or feel about something. Thus, the meaning of the message depends on the source’s attitude and the Receiver.

Knowledge

Knowledge indicates the level of actual information, familiarity, and experience on the discussion topic. Actually, the discussion topic is the message of the communication process. Therefore, the communicator feels comfortable discussing if the topic is familiar to them. However, knowledge does not imply the educational qualification or degrees of the sender or receiver.

For example, a football player will show more interest in talking about football rather than cricket. On the other hand, a cricket player will surely feel comfortable discussing a cricket game. Here, knowledge indicates familiarity with the subject of the discussion topic or message.

Social Systems

Social systems refer to the values, beliefs, behaviors, rules and regulations, locations, and religions. These factors influence the method of the communication process as well as the meaning of the message.

For example, the speaker is delivering an anti-America message in the American parliament election campaign. It is considerably sure that the audience will not receive and listen to his message attentively. It is an example of a location factor that is also part of the social system.

Culture

Culture refers to the social background of the Sender and Receiver. The meaning of the same message might be identical when people from different cultures interpret it. It is a significant factor from the perspective of nonverbal communication cues.

For example, exchanging “Salam” greetings among men and women is widespread in the Muslim community. Salam conveys the greeting message in the Muslim community; however, handshaking is another activity that also exchanges the same mean. On the other hand, handshaking is a standard greeting among men and women in Western culture.

2. Message

The message is the primary substance conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the Receiver. David Berlo proposed another five factors related to the message: Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code.

Content

Content refers to the entire body of the message from beginning to end. It is the actual information of the discussion. Content is the whole script of the conversation.

For example, the lecturer is teaching students on noise in communication. So, the full speech about communication noise is the content of the message.

Elements

Elements refer to nonverbal communication cues such as facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, and body movement. It makes the conversation more effective and productive. So, the communication might get boring without elements.

For example, the lecturer raises five fingers when mentioning the five basic noises in the communication process.

Treatment

Treatment refers to the communication way in which the message is conveyed to the audience. The communication way affects the communication system. It represents the message packaging. The examples of treatment in communication are delivering messages formally and casually.

For example, the teachers speak formally when delivering speeches in the classroom. However, the lecturer talks very casually when meeting students outside class.

Structure

The structure of the message describes the arrangement of the information. The effectiveness of the message depends on the message structure.

For example, the lecturer talks about the definition, types, and examples of communication noise. The students perceive the message clearly for its good arrangement.

Code

Code in the message refers to the form of message transmitting. The examples of the code are text, audio, video, visual, and so more.

For example, the teacher is speaking in front of the students; hence, the code of the message is audio.

3. Channel

Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from sender to Receiver. There are many types of channels in communication, such as radio, newspapers, TV, phone call, and social media. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the communication channel, such as hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. These five channels are a crucial part of the human communication process.

For example, the face to face class is more effective than an online class. The students can see the lecturer physically and hear the lecture clearly. Nowadays, many institutes conduct virtual classes through premium or free online meeting platforms. The channels denote the physical and virtual communication way to convey messages.

David Berlo mentions only five human senses as the communication channel such as Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting.

Hearing

People receive messages through listening. It is the most significant channel in the communication process. For example, students hear lectures in the classroom.

Seeing

People accept messages through seeing. It is one of the crucial channels in nonverbal communication. People take less than one second to judge others through seeing their physical appearance. The audiences form a conception about the speaker based on the body movement, facial expression, eye contact, and gesture. A proverb says that people can lie but eyes never lie. It means people believe what they see more than what they hear.

For example, a lecturer asks students about their final exam. The student reply that it was an excellent exam; however, the student looks very worried while interacting with the lecturer. So, the lecturer does not believe the statement due to seeing the worried face. Watching television is another example of seeing channels in communication.

Touching

Touch refers to a significant nonverbal communication channel that conveys messages through touching. It is also known as Haptics in Nonverbal Communication. The most common example of touching channels in communication holding hands, hugging, tickling, also kissing. These touching styles represent different messages.

Smelling

Smelling is another channel of the intrapersonal communication process.  The intrapersonal communication process means communicating with yourself. It is also known as olfactics nonverbal communication. People judge others based on the Fragrance they have used. A good smell creates a positive attitude toward the person. The perspiration odors form a negative perception of the person.

For example, people smell flowers, and fragrances to identify the flavor whether it is good or bad.

Tasting

Tasting refers to nonverbal communication channels through tasting something. For example, people test food to identify its deliciousness.

4. Receiver

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. David Berlo adds the same factors of the sources to the Receiver, such as Communication skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture, to the Receiver. Communication gets more effective when senders and receivers have similar skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Communication among people from the same culture and social system reduces communication noise during the interaction.

Conclusion

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication is the linear model of communication; therefore, the feedback is not present in the model. It is one of the significant communication models that describe the communication process through multiple elements, including Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver.