SMCR Model of Communication- David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR Model of Communication- Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example Situation. Berlo’s Model of Communication.

SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR communication model refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model of communication developed by David Berlo in 1960. In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR communication model with four elements: Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver, which are essential elements of any communication process. Therefore, the SMCR model of communication is known as Berlo’s Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model. Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective. SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the primary communication process.

There are three types of communication models: the linear, interactive, and transactional communication models. SMCR communication model refers to the one-way communication system. So, the SMCR model is a linear model of communication where feedback is absent.

Models of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication Example

Watching television news is a real-life example of David Barlo’s SMCR model of communication. It is also known as Berlo’s model of communication example situation. The four essential elements of Barlo’s model are the source, message, channel, and Receiver. Firstly, the news presenter is the source of the news who disseminates the information. The news is the message, and television is the channel. Finally, the audiences are the receivers of the message who watch the television.  In this context, the audience cannot provide feedback. It is also a one-way communication process where the feedback is not presented. Similarly, reading newspapers is another example of Barlo’s model of communication. Print and broadcast journalism mostly relates to one-way communication.

However, digital journalism, including social media-based citizen journalism and blogging, generates two-way communication, also known as the transactional communication model. The audience can comment to express their opinion.

For example, you watch television, read books, newspapers, and magazines, and hear an announcement.

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Figure 1: David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication

The Four Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication are:
  1. Source
  2. Message
  3. Channel
  4. Receiver

1. Source

The source means the message’s sender who initiates the communication process by sending information to the Receiver. David Berlo describes five factors related to the source: Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.

Communication skills

Communication skills refer to the ability to speak, read, write, and listen effectively. It also indicates the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. Communication will be more effective if the senders and receivers both have excellent communication skills. The most common nonverbal communication examples are eye contact, facial expression, body language, gesture, posture, and so more.  The communication skill of the source or sender increases the effectiveness of the communication process.

Attitude

Attitude is the psychological factor of the sender and Receiver that affects the meaning of the message. It is also an established perception of a person in which they think or feel about something. Thus, the meaning of the message depends on the source’s attitude and the Receiver.

Knowledge

Knowledge indicates the level of actual information, familiarity, and experience on the discussion topic. Actually, the discussion topic is the message of the communication process. Therefore, the communicator feels comfortable discussing if the topic is familiar to them. However, knowledge does not imply the educational qualification or degrees of the sender or receiver.

For example, a football player will show more interest in talking about football rather than cricket. On the other hand, a cricket player will surely feel comfortable discussing a cricket game. Here, knowledge indicates familiarity with the subject of the discussion topic or message.

Social Systems

Social systems refer to the values, beliefs, behaviors, rules and regulations, locations, and religions. These factors influence the method of the communication process as well as the meaning of the message.

For example, the speaker is delivering an anti-America message in the American parliament election campaign. It is considerably sure that the audience will not receive and listen to his message attentively. It is an example of a location factor that is also part of the social system.

Culture

Culture refers to the social background of the Sender and Receiver. The meaning of the same message might be identical when people from different cultures interpret it. It is a significant factor from the perspective of nonverbal communication cues.

For example, exchanging “Salam” greetings among men and women is widespread in the Muslim community. Salam conveys the greeting message in the Muslim community; however, handshaking is another activity that also exchanges the same mean. On the other hand, handshaking is a standard greeting among men and women in Western culture.

2. Message

The message is the primary substance conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the Receiver. David Berlo proposed another five factors related to the message: Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code.

Content

Content refers to the entire body of the message from beginning to end. It is the actual information of the discussion. Content is the whole script of the conversation.

For example, the lecturer is teaching students on noise in communication. So, the full speech about communication noise is the content of the message.

Elements

Elements refer to nonverbal communication cues such as facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, and body movement. It makes the conversation more effective and productive. So, the communication might get boring without elements.

For example, the lecturer raises five fingers when mentioning the five basic noises in the communication process.

Treatment

Treatment refers to the communication way in which the message is conveyed to the audience. The communication way affects the communication system. It represents the message packaging. The examples of treatment in communication are delivering messages formally and casually.

For example, the teachers speak formally when delivering speeches in the classroom. However, the lecturer talks very casually when meeting students outside class.

Structure

The structure of the message describes the arrangement of the information. The effectiveness of the message depends on the message structure.

For example, the lecturer talks about the definition, types, and examples of communication noise. The students perceive the message clearly for its good arrangement.

Code

Code in the message refers to the form of message transmitting. The examples of the code are text, audio, video, visual, and so more.

For example, the teacher is speaking in front of the students; hence, the code of the message is audio.

3. Channel

Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from sender to Receiver. There are many types of channels in communication, such as radio, newspapers, TV, phone call, and social media. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the communication channel, such as hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. These five channels are a crucial part of the human communication process.

For example, the face to face class is more effective than an online class. The students can see the lecturer physically and hear the lecture clearly. Nowadays, many institutes conduct virtual classes through premium or free online meeting platforms. The channels denote the physical and virtual communication way to convey messages.

David Berlo mentions only five human senses as the communication channel such as Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting.

Hearing

People receive messages through listening. It is the most significant channel in the communication process. For example, students hear lectures in the classroom.

Seeing

People accept messages through seeing. It is one of the crucial channels in nonverbal communication. People take less than one second to judge others through seeing their physical appearance. The audiences form a conception about the speaker based on the body movement, facial expression, eye contact, and gesture. A proverb says that people can lie but eyes never lie. It means people believe what they see more than what they hear.

For example, a lecturer asks students about their final exam. The student reply that it was an excellent exam; however, the student looks very worried while interacting with the lecturer. So, the lecturer does not believe the statement due to seeing the worried face. Watching television is another example of seeing channels in communication.

Touching

Touch refers to a significant nonverbal communication channel that conveys messages through touching. It is also known as Haptics in Nonverbal Communication. The most common example of touching channels in communication holding hands, hugging, tickling, also kissing. These touching styles represent different messages.

Smelling

Smelling is another channel of the intrapersonal communication process.  The intrapersonal communication process means communicating with yourself. It is also known as olfactics nonverbal communication. People judge others based on the Fragrance they have used. A good smell creates a positive attitude toward the person. The perspiration odors form a negative perception of the person.

For example, people smell flowers, and fragrances to identify the flavor whether it is good or bad.

Tasting

Tasting refers to nonverbal communication channels through tasting something. For example, people test food to identify its deliciousness.

4. Receiver

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. David Berlo adds the same factors of the sources to the Receiver, such as Communication skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture, to the Receiver. Communication gets more effective when senders and receivers have similar skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Communication among people from the same culture and social system reduces communication noise during the interaction.

Conclusion

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication is the linear model of communication; therefore, the feedback is not present in the model. It is one of the significant communication models that describe the communication process through multiple elements, including Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver.

Red Ocean & Blue Ocean Strategy Examples & Difference in 2022

Red Ocean Strategy and Blue Ocean Strategy Examples & Difference in 2022. Difference Between Blue ocean and Red ocean strategy. Examples of Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy. Also, Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework.

Red Ocean Strategy

Red ocean strategy refers to the traditional marketing strategy to compete with the competitors. It is demonstrated when many companies compete to achieve a competitive advantage in the existing market. These companies contest in the same marketplace to beat their opponents. Red ocean strategy influences the company to provide better service to buyers. It mainly focuses on the existing customers and buyers rather than creating new customers. So, they provide better services and products to attract customers.

Characteristics of Red Ocean Strategy

Firstly, the red ocean strategy focuses on competing in the existing market. So, multiple companies compete with each other to achieve competitive advantages. The marketing team pursues both product cost and differentiation to beat other companies. Additionally, the company is intended to provide better service to buyers. Finally, they more attention to the current customers instead of looking for new clients.

For example, Malaysia and Air Asia Airlines follow the red ocean strategy to beat their competitors.

Red Ocean Strategy Examples

Air Asia is a renowned airline company in Malaysia. It always tries to compete with other airline companies in Malaysia, for example, Firefly, Malindo, and Malaysia Airlines, to achieve competitive advantages. Air Asia offers low prices in domestic and international flights to beat the competitors. On the other hand, Malaysia Airlines also reduce the price to beat Air Asia. So, they fight each other in the same marketplace. It is a real-life example 0f the Blue Ocean Strategy.

Suppose we infer these giant companies with sharks and the marketplace with the ocean. So, imagine what will happen if all these sharks fight with each other. The ocean gets bloody due to the fierce fight of sharks.

Advantages of Red Ocean Strategy

Firstly, the market has already existed, so no need to create a new marketplace.

Secondly, the services and products have good demand by the customers. Many customers want the products; so, the new companies can utilize the existing consumers.

Additionally, the company can recruit skilled employees easily who have deep experience in the sector.

Finally, the new companies can get ideas on how to improve the business from their competitors.

Disadvantages of Red Ocean Strategy

Firstly, The competitors are experienced in this market so difficult to beat them.

Secondly, the company needs to focus on cost and differentiation, which is difficult for a new business.

Blue Ocean Strategy

Blue ocean strategy refers to the uncontested marketing policy that focuses more on the innovation to reinvent the business than the head-to-head competition.  W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne together introduced the Blue ocean strategy in 2005. It is a simultaneous process of opening a new business market and creating new demand; therefore, competition is irrelevant.

Blue Ocean Strategy Examples

There are several examples of the blue ocean strategy worldwide. Many industries had accepted it to get benefits, such as Netflix, Canon, iTunes, Cemex, Philips, NetJets, Curves, JCDecaux, Quicken, Polo Ralph Lauren, etc. iTunes solved the problem recording industries when it started the business. Before launching iTunes, consumers download a song illegally from the internet platform. ITunes’s blues ocean strategy created a new way of selling music legally, where consumers and artists became mutually benefited. They managed to make a new category of music selling through digital music platforms for listeners. Still, it is dominating the marketplace of music platforms for years.

Netflix organizational change is the most appropriate example of the Blue Ocean strategy. Netflix changed its business model to create an uncontested new market. It is one of the most successful companies that accept the blue ocean strategy to achieve competitive advantages.

For example, Netflix, Canon, and iTunes follow the blue ocean strategy to achieve the competitive goal.

Blue and Red Ocean Strategy Examples

For example, you put some sharks in a pond. Now, they are fighting each other. The sharks are trying to kill others. A few hours later, you can see the water has been red for the shark’s blood. We can infer this pond to the red ocean where many companies are competing with each other.

On the other hand, you put a shark in a separate pond. There is no other shark that can fight, so the water is blue and fresh. We can infer it to the blue ocean strategy where only one company controls the marketplace.

Red Ocean Strategy vs. Blue Ocean Strategy. Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy. Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy. Red Ocean vs Blue Ocean Strategy.
Red Ocean vs Blue Ocean Strategy

Red Ocean vs. Blue Ocean Strategy

Red Ocean Strategy
Blue Ocean Strategy
The contest is in the same market. Create an uncontested new market.
Many Companies compete with each other in the existing market. One Company dominates the new Market.
Beats competitors. Competitors are irrelevant.
The company pursues both cost and differentiation. The company chooses between cost and differentiation.
Make the value-cost trade-off. Break the value-cost trade-off.
Capture new demand. Exploit existing demand.
Focus on rivals within its industry. Focus across the alternative industry.
Intend to provide better service to buyers. Redefine the buyer group.
Focus on current customers. Focus on new customers.
The market is already established. Need to make the new market.
For example, Ryanair and Air Asia Airlines. For example, Netflix, Canon, and iTunes.
Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy
Red Ocean Strategy and Blue Ocean Strategy- Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean strategy. What is the Blue ocean strategy? What is the Red Ocean Strategy? Blue and Red Ocean Strategy. Examples of Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy.
Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy
 1. Focus on Current Customers vs. Focus on New Customers

Most industries focus on attracting existing customers to sell more products and services in the red ocean strategy. Thus, they focus on the current customer to make a benefit by selling products and services.

In contrast, in the blue ocean strategy, the industry tries to change the business pattern to yield something new for the customers. The company also broadens the business area to develop new products or services; therefore, customers are irrelevant here. Thus, this strategy allows the company to focus on business patterns rather than customers.

2. Compete in Existing Markets vs. Create New Markets

From the red ocean strategy perspective, the industry is doing business with the customers where some industries gain more clients, and some other sectors lose clients. They are doing business among the same customers and competing with each other to get more customers. The company will earn more money if it can bring more customers to its umbrella.

The blue ocean strategy never suggests the company compete because it makes a new uncontested marketplace. The product and service are unique; therefore, no company will come to compete with you. So, this strategy creates an uncontested market to serve its customers.

3. Beat the Competitor vs. Make the Competitor Irrelevant

The competition must exist in the marketplace of the company that follows the red ocean strategy. They compete with each other to sell more products and services to increase profit margins. So, they always intend to beat the competitors through marketing policy, product quality, and services.

The blue ocean strategy makes the competition irrelevant because they need not compete with other industries to sell products and services. It makes a new marketplace for the industry.

Key Points of Blue Ocean Strategy

The eight key points of the Blue ocean strategy are as follows;

  1. It’s grounded in data.
  2. It pursues differentiation and low cost.
  3. Blue ocean creates an uncontested market space.
  4. It empowers you through tools & framework.
  5. Blue ocean strategy provides a step-by-step process.
  6. It maximizes opportunity while minimizing risks.
  7. Blue ocean also builds execution into strategy.
  8. It shows you how to create a win-win outcome.
Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework

Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne developed the four action framework to destroy the trade-off between low cost and differentiation and rebuild an industry’s strategic logic. The four Actions Template determines whether the investment money is properly used to maximize consumer gain and minimize consumer pain. It also assesses the gains that matter with this template and the pains that matter for your product. It is the best way of getting the most benefit with the least price within the total product market.

Four Action Framework Examples
Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework
Figure 3: Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework

How to Use Four Action Templates

Eliminate

Firstly, you have to identify the factors of the industry that need to be eliminated because of defectiveness. Find out the elements where you give significant investment and effort but getting very little output. These factors can also be made more contributions in the past but are now useless, so you need to eliminate them because of becoming obsolete.

Reduce

Secondly, you need to identify factors that are unnecessary for the industry and cannot correctly benefit the industry. These factors are well below the industry’s standard. For example, the higher cost of manufacturing can reduce the product.

Raise

These are the significant factors that need to be increased to fulfill the industries well above standards. For example, to exceed the customer’s challenges, the company needs to rebuild the features.

Create

These are the new features that the company never provided. To create these new features, you need to investigate the customer’s desire to fulfill them. The industry also can create new products or offer unique services for consumers in an innovative way. It will help the company to create a new marketplace distinguished from the competition.

Conclusion

In short, Red ocean strategy refers to competing for the existing marketplace, where the blue ocean strategy denotes making a new uncontested marketplace. Based on the discussion, it is safe to say that the blue ocean is a better way to bring fewer risks, more success, and increased profits. In addition, the four action templates appear as the best solution to identify the industry’s investment is properly or not. Hence, the blue ocean strategy and the four action framework have become innovative business innovations.