Deming PDCA Cycle Four Stages, Advantages, and Disadvantages

Deming PDCA Cycle- Four Stages, Advantages, and Disadvantages. PDSA Cycle Pros and Cons. PDSA or Deming Cycle Revolution. 4 Stages of PDCA.

Deming PDCA Cycle

Deming PDCA cycle refers to a repeated four-step management model that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. In the 1950s, a famous management scholar Dr. William Edwards Deming, introduced the PDCA method; therefore, it is also known as the Deming cycle or Deming Wheel. It is a very famous method to solve problems to yield the highest quality result. The full meaning of PDCA is the Plan–Do–Check–Act is a four-step action method. In addition, it has many names, such as the PDSA abbreviation of the Plan–Do–Check–Adjust, the Deming cycle or circle or wheel, the Shewhart cycle, and the control cycle or circle.

The Four Stages of the Deming Cycle

The Four Stages of the Deming Cycle are Plan, Do, Study or Check, and Act. These are the inevitable elements of the Deming cycle.

1. Plan

PLAN is the initial step of the four steps method that identifies the problem and opportunities to suggest recommendations. In addition, it analyzes and describes the overall current situation of the project. The authority recruits a team to understand the full process of the project in this stage; they will identify the problems that need to be changed and find solutions to fix the problems. You have to find out the answers to some basic questions regarding the project. The questions are as follows;

  • Firstly, what is the main problem that must need to be solved?
  • Secondly, what kind of resources do you have now?
  • In addition, what resources do you have to have?
  • Moreover, what is the solution that you have taken with resources?
  • Finally, how long will it take to analyze the problems and implement the planning?
2. Do

The DO phase is the second stage of the Deming cycle, where the testing of the solution starts to execute to identify the results. After completing the planning step, you have to take action to solve the problems. You will apply all plans that you have taken in the first stage. Some unwanted problems can emerge in this stage, so you have to be aware to confront them. For increasing your confidence level, you can apply your actions to a small arena in the project. It is a subtle way to control the situation properly as well as avoiding an unpredicted big mistake. All team members stay alert at this stage to play their roles and responsibility. In addition, you with your team members will take some initiatives mentioned below:

  • Keep a record of what happened and what is happened?
  • When do you apply the planning?
  • Collect data from the planning stage.
  • Try to use a check sheet, swim lane map, and flowchart to capture data.
3. Study or Check

Study or check is probably the most important step of the Deming cycle. You must pay attention to the CHECK stage if you want to scrutinize the output that yielded from the earlier stage. It will help you to avoid repeating mistakes and clarify the success of your planning and applying steps. This stage will allow you to audit your plan’s performance; you will be confirmed whether the plan works perfectly or not.  Additionally, your team will identify the problematic portion of the project to eliminate them in the future. You would be able to discover the root cause of the problem if something went wrong. In short, this stage will assess the system’s effectiveness and help you decide whether the theory is helpful or not.

Example: Appraisals or  Gap analysis.

  • In this stage, you have to answer some questions mentioned below.
  • Is the system effective or not?
  • Do you want to continue this system or need to change it?
  • Have you outlined a list including the unexpected results, failures, successes, and outcomes?
4. Act

ACT is the final stage of the system that finalizes the perfect solution to implement it. In this stage, your organization should follow adapt, adopt, and abandon factors. Adapt refers to changing and modifying the PDSA circle for the next test. Adopt indicates considering expanding the system to all departments in the organization. Abandon means modify your full approach and repeat the PDCA circle.  In sum, it is the step of standardization that is considered standardized when goals are exceeded.

The Pros and Cons of Deming Cycle or PDSA / PDCA

Firstly, PDSA is a simple and effective process to resolve a new and recurring problem in the industry. In addition, it is a repeated approach that will allow you to measure results without a waste of time. Moreover, it is a risk-free cycle to apply a small scale in the project; therefore, no need to change the full process if it doesn’t work.

In contrast, the full process of the PDSA is slow when applying the four steps in the industry to yield the final result. It is not a straightforward execution process that can apply to urgent problem-solving issues. Additionally, you need to use some resources, including effective team members, to ensure that each circle step is directed perfectly.

The Evolution of the Deming Cycle or PDSA

The Deming cycle has been evolved from time to time to make it an effective process. I will discuss how the Deming cycle came to be and how it has evolved from time to time.

Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Deming was an American management consultant who graduated as an electrical engineer, later concentrating on mathematical physics. He has become a famous person in the Japanese industry for his work and initiatives after WWII. In addition, Dr. W. Edwards Deming got recognition as one of the most influential Japanese manufacturing industries who are not Japanese but American. He championed the work of Walter Shewhart, including total quality management, statistic process control, and renamed the Shewhart Cycle. After all, He had a great contribution to the rise of the post-war economic growth in Japan.

The Shewhart Cycle

Deming had been inspired by an American engineer Walter Andrew Shewhart who was also a physicist and statistician. In 1939, Shewhart published a book on the Viewpoint of Quality Control. It was the first book that articulated a three-stage systematic process of specification, production, and inspection. These three stages were developed to test the hypothesis of experiments. Finally, he mentioned that these stages should not go straight, but they should go in a cycle. Thus, the Shewhart Cycle came up with the process of a circle.

The Deming Wheel

In 1950, Deming analyzed Shewhart’s Cycle to modify it. He introduced a new version of Shewhart’s Cycle: a four-step of design, production, sales, and research. This cycle has been known as the Deming’s Circle or Deming Wheel.

PDCA

Some Japanese executives probably modify the Deming cycle or Deming wheel into Plan, Do Check, Act (PDCA), although the exact reason for changing the term name is unclear. This four-step cycle was introduced to identify the problems in the industry and solve them by applying four steps together. The prime objective of this cycle is to standardize if the results are satisfying.

Deming Cycle- Four Stages of Deming Cycle & PDSA Cycle Pros and Cons
Deming PDCA Cycle or PDSA Cycle
PDSA
Deming was not satisfied with the name of PDCA; therefore, he amended it in 1986. He emphasized the core meaning of checking, and he mentioned that checking is not incorporate the cycle. Hence, the PDSA emerged with the recommendation of Deming.
When to Apply PDSA

The PDSA or PDCA framework can develop any process or product by splitting it into a shorter steps. This cycle can be used in every kind of organization in many aspects such as changing management, new service or product deployment, product lifecycle, and so on. This framework is beneficial for assisting the improvement of the six sigma and total quality management process. It is the best option to dig out problems and practical solutions.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Quality Improvement

The Deming cycle is one of the essential parts of the quality improvement process in the big industry. Apart from that, organizations apply other quality improvements program that is much complex QI processes.

  • Continuous Quality Improvement: It is also known as the CQI process that organizations apply to reduce waste, increase efficiency, and increase internal and external satisfaction. It is a management philosophy that assesses how the industry works to develop its process. These more complex quality improvement programs include the following:
  • Lean: The lean process is a manufacturing program that effectively improves efficiency and reduces wasteful practices. This program focuses more on improving services and products based on customer’s demands.
  • Six Sigma: The six sigma process is the set of tools and techniques that develop the quality of a process by eliminating defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing.
  • Total Quality Management: It is a process of a management system based on practicing a principle that instills good business culture where every employee maintains a high standard of work. It influences the organization to maintain a high quality of service in every aspect of the company.
  • Quality Improvement Collaboratives: It is a process that usually applies to the healthcare center in which many organizations work together to develop services for patients.
Conclusion

Deming cycle refers to a repeated four-step (PLAN, DO, STUDY, ACT) that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. Today, many organizations worldwide use this method to improve the product and service by solving problems.

Active and Passive Audience Theory, Example, Definition, & Difference

Active and Passive Audience Definition, Theory, and Differences. Also, Examples of Active and Passive Audiences. Finally, what is the Active and Passive Audience Theory?

Active and Passive Audience

What is the Active Audience?

Active Audiences

Active audiences refer to those who actively receive media information and make sense of the messages based on their social and personal contexts. They listen to the media messages instead of hearing them. However, active audiences receive media information actively, but the act of receiving media information is unintentional. So, the active audiences pay full attention to receiving information and interpret them to give feedback. The most common listening styles are people, content, action, and Time-oriented listening.

Examples of Active Audience

For example, people are the active audience who comment on social media content to express opinions.

Another example, based on the story shared in the example of the active and passive audience below, Ela is an active audience who scrutinizes the message before accepting them.

Characteristic of Active audiences

Active audiences actively listen carefully to give an opinion; therefore, they are a complicated and critical thinker. Additionally, they have good schemata.

Passive Audiences

Passive Audiences refer to those people who watch and observe the media information without making sense. Hence, they are recognized as inactive receivers. Passive audiences have low motivation to process information, low ability to process information and focus on simple cues (e.g., appearances instead of content)

Examples of Active Audience

For example, People who are active in social media do not like to comment on social media content.

Another example, based on the story shared in the example of the active and passive audience below, Bela is a passive audience that accepts the message without challenging them.

Characteristics of Passive audiences

The Passive audience is inactively involved in hearing something rather than listening. Passive audiences merely observe the message; therefore, they are cognitive misers who are lazy to think.

Examples of Active and Passive audiences

For example, Ela and Bela are siblings who are watching the news on television. The news reporter is providing tips on how to stay healthy. Ela tries to listen to the news reporter’s tips actively to follow them. Then, she asks her sister Bela to be confirmed whether do these tips really work or not? In contrast, Bela accepts those tips easily. Here, Ela is an active audience who is a critical thinker. Therefore, she carefully focuses on the news presenter’s dress, speaking style, and messages’ meaning.

On the other hand, Bela watches the news without focusing on the content of the message. Here, Bela is a passive audience who is a cognitive miser. Therefore, she does not focus on interpreting the message; she only focuses on the news reporter’s appearance. As a result, she believes the news reporter’s tips easily and becomes manipulated.

Active and Passive Audience
Difference Between Active and Passive Audience
Difference Between Active and Passive Audiences
Active Audiences
Passive Audiences
Firstly, active audiences interpret and respond to the media texts In contrast, Passive audiences merely observe the media text.
They decode and evaluate the message. On the other hand, they accept the message without evaluating it.
Active audiences form opinions and provide feedback. The passive audiences accept the opinions only.
Active audiences pay full attention to listen to the message. In contrast, passive audiences pay little attention to hearing the message.
For example, Ela scrutinizes messages received from the news reporter rather than accepts them directly. For example, Bela accepts messages received from the news reporter without scrutinizing them.
The message cannot affect the active audience directly. The message affects the passive audience directly.
It is difficult to manipulate the active audience. On the other hand, it is easy to manipulate the passive audience.
Active audiences are critical thinkers. On the other hand, the passive audiences are cognitive misers.
They have good schemata. In contrast, passive audiences are lazy to think.
The active audience is involved in listening including discriminative, and comprehensive listening. However, the passive audience is involved in hearing.

 Active Audience Theory

Active audience theory explains that active media audiences do not just accept media information inactively; rather, they interpret the message based on their personal and social contexts.

The active audience theories are the Hypodermic needle model of communication, the Encoding/decoding model of communication, the Uses and gratifications theory, the Two-step flow theory, etc.

The hypodermic needle model proposed that the audience or receiver directly receives the targeted information. It also shows that the passive audiences accept the message fully.

The encoding/decoding model of communication represents that media information is created, distributed, and interpreted theoretically.

Uses and gratifications theory shows a strategic approach to explaining how and why people or audiences actively find specific media to meet specific needs. It also represents an audience-centered strategy to perceive the process of mass communication.

The two-step flow of communication model argues that audiences accept media information more if the opinion leaders deliver the message. So, the audience gets influenced by mass media if the opinion leader supports to disseminates the information.

Citation For this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Active and Passive Audience Definition, Theory, Differences & Examples. Newsmoor- Educational Website for Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/active-passive-audience-differences-example-active-audience-theory/