Demographic Geographic Psychographic Market Segmentation Factors

Demographic Geographic Psychographic Market Segmentation. The 3 Basic types of market segmentation are Demographic Segmentation, Geographic Segmentation & Psychographics Segmentation. Also, Customer Profile Demographics Psychographics Geographics. Target Market Segmentation Theories- Maslow’s Hierarchy and VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour.

Demographic Geographic Psychographic

Demographic Geographic Psychographic segmentation refers to the market segmentation technique based on the different factors related to the audiences. These are the most effective strategies to divide people into an identical subgroup. The purpose of demographic, geographic, and psychographic segmentation aims to separate people into subgroups to regulate a political campaign, commercial marketing, and advertising.

Market Segmentation

Market segmentation separates people into similar subgroups based on geographic, demographic, and psychographic factors. It is an essential process for social, political, and commercial campaigns and advertising. It is an excellent way of sending messages to a targeted group of people rather than everyone.  A long time ago, audience segmentation was primarily applied for social and political campaigns. Nowadays, it has become trendy in market segmentation. Therefore, audience segmentation is known as market segmentation.

Market Segmentation Examples

For example, a political leader is conducting a campaign asking to vote for his political party. So, the leader targets the voters only to conduct the campaign. In many countries all over the world, the minimum age for being a voter is eighteen years. For example, in the USA, citizens can vote in any public election who are a minimum of 18 years old or older than 18 years. So, the political leader persuades citizens of the constituency an age minimum of 18 years. Here, a citizen of the constituency refers to the habitant of a particular area which is also an example of a geographic factor of market segmentation. Similarly, age is an example of demographic characteristics of market segmentation.

Demographic Geographic Psychographic
Demographic Geographic Psychographic Market Segmentation Variable
Demographic Geographic Psychographic Market Segmentation Factors
Types of Market Segmentation
The 3 Types of Market segmentation are
  1. Demographic Segmentation
  2. Geographic Segmentation
  3. Psychographic Segmentation
Demographic Segmentation

Demographic segmentation refers to the process of separating people into similar subgroups based on demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, economic status, and group membership.

For example, a political organization is dividing people based on age. They are looking for voters whose age is more than 18 years. It is an example of demographic segmentation. Demographic questionnaires are crucial to conducting survey and market research.

Demographic Factors

The demographic factors are a set of audiences’ characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, etc.

The demographic segmentation factors are Age, Gender, Ethnicity, Education, Religion, Economic status, Experience, Group Member, Nationality, Marital Status, Employment Status, Family Status, and Living Status.

Examples of Demographics in Marketing

Demographic Market Segmentation Factors

Geographic Segmentation

Geographic segmentation means separating people into similar subgroups based on geographical factors such as residence, climate, and population. It highlights the location and environment of the audience.

Geographic Factors

The Geographic Factors are Place of residence, Season and Climate, and Population.

Place of Residence

Place of residence refers to rural and urban areas where the audience lives permanently or temporarily. People from urban and rural areas are different in their lifestyles, such as dress up, outlook, and attitudes. Therefore, market segmentation is essential before starting an advertising or social campaign.

 Season and Climate

Season refers to a specific time of year categorized by a particular climate condition. For example, the United States has four seasons, including Autumn, Spring, Summer, and Winter.

For example, Ice cream companies earn more money in the summer season than in winter. In contrast, the blanket-selling company focuses on the winter season for marketing. The company needs to focus on geographic segmentation for the advertising campaigns.

Population

Population means the inhabitants of a particular area; for example, the capital city, metropolitan city, or small town. However, they imply almost similar characteristics but have some differences too.

Psychographic Segmentation

Psychographic segmentation separates people into similar subgroups based on psychographic factors such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. These factors indicate the internal mental characteristics of people.

Psychographic Factors

The four psychographic factors of market segmentation are values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors—these four factors help understand how the audiences feel and behave.

For example, a political leader’s values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are definitely distinguished from a physician’s.

Example of Psychographic segmentation

For example, You may feel that giving blood is important (Attitude) because an adequate blood supply is necessary to save a life (Belief) and because you respect human life (Value). Your (Behavior), as you participate in the blood drive and donate blood, is a logical and observable extension of your

 Values

Firstly, values mean a judgment of what is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable. For example, most people share equality, freedom, honesty, fairness, justice, good health, and family. Another example, we respect human life naturally (Value).

Beliefs

Secondly, a belief is something you accept as true, and it is stated as a declarative sentence. For instance, students believe that the use of the internet improves the quality of students’ research. Furthermore, You may feel that giving blood is important because an adequate blood supply is necessary to save a life (Belief).

Attitudes

Thirdly, an attitude is a statement expressing an individual’s approval or disapproval, like or dislike. Usually, attitudes evolve from our values and beliefs. Many values and beliefs interact to complicate our decision-making.  For example, You may feel that giving blood is very important (Attitude).

Behaviors

Finally, Behavior is an individual’s observable action. It is the way of how we act or behave toward others. It is the combination of other psychological factors such as values, beliefs, and attitudes.

For example, You may feel that giving blood is important (Attitude) because an adequate blood supply is necessary to save a life (Belief) and because you respect human life (Value). Your behavior is a logical and observable extension of your outlook as you participate in the blood drive and donate blood.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychographic Segmentation
Advantages of Psychographic Segmentation
  1. Deeper Understanding of Customers: Psychographic segmentation provides a more comprehensive understanding of customers beyond basic demographic information like age and income. It helps marketers understand what drives consumer behavior, preferences, and purchasing decisions.
  2. Targeted Marketing Communications: By segmenting the market based on psychographic variables, marketers can tailor their messaging and communication strategies to resonate with specific consumer segments. This personalized approach increases the relevance of marketing efforts, leading to higher engagement and response rates.
  3. Enhanced Product Development: Psychographic segmentation enables companies to develop products and services that align with the needs, preferences, and lifestyles of different consumer segments. By catering to the unique desires and aspirations of target customers, companies can create offerings that stand out in the market and generate greater customer satisfaction.
  4. Improved Customer Retention: Understanding the psychographic profiles of customers allows companies to build stronger relationships and loyalty. By delivering personalized experiences and addressing the values and interests of customers, companies can foster deeper connections and increase customer retention rates.
  5. Effective Market Positioning: Psychographic segmentation helps companies identify niche markets or segments with distinct needs and preferences. By positioning their products or services to address the specific desires of these segments, companies can differentiate themselves from competitors and gain a competitive advantage in the market.
  6. Increased Marketing ROI: Targeting specific psychographic segments allows companies to allocate their marketing resources more efficiently. By focusing efforts on segments most likely to respond positively to their offerings, companies can optimize their marketing ROI and achieve better results with less expenditure.
  7. Adaptation to Changing Trends: Psychographic segmentation enables companies to stay attuned to evolving consumer trends, lifestyles, and preferences. By continuously monitoring and analyzing psychographic data, companies can
Disadvantages of Psychographic Segmentation
  1. Subjectivity and Interpretation Bias: Psychographic segmentation relies on subjective interpretations of consumer attitudes, values, and behaviors, which can introduce bias into the segmentation process. Different analysts may interpret the same data differently, leading to inconsistent segmentation outcomes.
  2. Limited Generalizability: Psychographic segments may not generalize well across different markets or demographics. Consumer preferences and behaviors can vary widely based on cultural, regional, or temporal factors, making it challenging to apply psychographic insights universally.
  3. Complexity in Data Collection: Gathering psychographic data can be more complex and time-consuming compared to demographic or geographic data. It often requires extensive market research, surveys, and analysis to uncover consumers’ attitudes, values, and lifestyles accurately.
  4. Overlap Between Segments: Psychographic segments often overlap, making it difficult to create distinct and actionable segments for targeted marketing efforts. Consumers may exhibit characteristics of multiple psychographic segments simultaneously, blurring the boundaries between segments.
  5. Privacy Concerns: Collecting and analyzing personal information related to consumers’ attitudes, values, and lifestyles raises privacy concerns. Consumers may be wary of sharing sensitive information, especially in light of data privacy regulations and concerns about data security breaches.
Two Market Segmentation Theories
  1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Psychological Needs theory
  2. VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow (1943) initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower-level deficit needs before meeting higher-level growth needs. It is a well-known content theory of motivation. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a need is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given, for example, “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges”. According to Maslow’s theory, human needs can be divided into five categories. These are physical, safety, belongings, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

1. Physical needs: Physical needs are basic human requirements for livelihood, for example, water, food, rest, warmth, and so on.

2. Safety needs Requirements for security and protection purposes, such as personal security, health security, employment, property, etc.

3. Belongings and love needs: Relationship with people around us for giving and receiving affection, for example, intimacy, friendship, family, and friends.

4. Esteem needs: Refers to self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-respect of humans; for example, everyone has a certain talent, so we need to pat on the back from time to time for exploring their intellectuality.

5. Self-actualization needs: Refers to self-fulfillment desiring to become the most that one can be; for example, we need our goals to feel that we have fulfilled our destiny or reached our potential.

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour

The VALS (Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles) segmentation model is a widely used framework in consumer behavior research and marketing. Developed by social scientists Arnold Mitchell and S. Robert Horton, the VALS framework categorizes consumers into distinct psychographic segments based on their primary motivations, attitudes, and behavioral patterns. Here’s an overview of the VALS segmentation model:

  1. Values: The VALS model identifies two primary dimensions of human values: resources and self-orientation. Resources refer to the extent to which individuals prioritize achieving goals related to self-enhancement or self-transcendence. Self-orientation relates to individuals’ motivations for seeking stimulation and variety versus stability and order in their lives.
  2. Attitudes: VALS classifies individuals based on their attitudes toward innovation and change, as well as their level of openness to new experiences and ideas. This dimension reflects individuals’ willingness to adopt new products, technologies, or lifestyles.
  3. Lifestyles: The VALS model distinguishes between primary and secondary motivations that drive consumer behavior. Primary motivations reflect individuals’ core values and priorities, while secondary motivations are situational or contextual factors that influence behavior in specific circumstances.
Based on these dimensions, the VALS segmentation model identifies eight distinct consumer segments:
  1. Innovators: These consumers are characterized by their high levels of resources, self-confidence, and openness to new ideas and experiences. They are often early adopters of innovative products and technologies.
  2. Thinkers: Thinkers value knowledge, education, and intellectual pursuits. They tend to be rational and deliberate in their decision-making process, preferring products and brands that align with their values and beliefs.
  3. Achievers: Achievers are motivated by success, status, and achievement. They strive for material wealth and social recognition, preferring established brands and products that symbolize success and prestige.
  4. Experiencers: Experiencers seek excitement, adventure, and variety in their lives. They are spontaneous, impulsive, and open to new experiences, often seeking out novel and unconventional products and activities.
  5. Believers: Believers are traditional, conservative, and value-oriented consumers. They prioritize security, stability, and family values, preferring established brands and products with a track record of reliability.
  6. Strivers: Strivers are ambitious, aspiring individuals who seek to improve their social and economic status. They are motivated by success and recognition, often emulating the lifestyles and behaviors of higher-status groups.
  7. Makers: Makers are practical, hands-on individuals who value self-sufficiency, craftsmanship, and utility. They prefer functional, no-frills products that offer value and durability.
  8. Survivors: Survivors are cautious, risk-averse consumers who prioritize security, safety, and basic needs. They are typically on fixed incomes or facing financial constraints, preferring low-cost, practical solutions to their needs.
Conclusion

Target market segmentation has become a viral strategy for social, political, and business purposes. Now, people live in a global village as global citizens for the easy accessibility of social media. Therefore, politicians and business persons pay more attention to market segmentation for political campaigns and marketing publicity on social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, etc.

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication Stages With Advantages and Disadvantages

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication. Bruce Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman Theory PDF.

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory refers to the five stages of the group development model developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is also known as Tuckman’s model, Tuckman’s theory, Tuckman’s ladder, five stages of group development theory, Tuckman’s team development model, Tuckman’s theory of communication, and Tuckman’s stages.

Bruce Tuckman introduced his four stages of group development theory in 1965. However, in the 1970s, he added the fifth stage to his four stages of group development theory. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen included the fifth and final stage in Tuckman’s theory. The name of the fifth stage is Adjourning, which represents the happiness of achieving the interdependent group goal by the group members. So, it became known as Tuckman and Jensen’s theory after adding the fifth stage.

Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development

Tuckman’s five stages of group development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. Additionally, a perfect theory describes how group members adjust and adapt to a group gradually.

Tuckman's Theory of Communication Five Stages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman's Theory.
Bruce Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory

The five Stages of Bruce Tuckman’s Theory in Communication are:

  1. Forming Stage
  2. Storming Stage
  3. Norming Stage
  4. Performing Stage
  5. Adjourning Stage.
1. Forming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Orientation)

Forming is the first stage of Tuckman’s theory of communication, also known as the five stages of the group development model. Usually, members carefully explore both personal and group goals in this stage. They feel uncomfortable working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues trying to understand and test personal relationships. Member also orients itself to itself.

Group Develops in the Forming Stage: 

  • Ice-breaking” stage.
  • Group members are uncertain about their roles.
  • Mutual trust is low.
  • There is a good deal of holding back to see who is in charge.
  • Conflict is beneficial and leads to increased creativity.
Primary Tension

Firstly, group members feel social unease and stiffness accompanying the getting-acquainted stage in a new group. They become overly polite with one another. Additionally, members don’t interrupt one another. They often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions, also talk less, and provide little in the way of content.

How to Solve the Tension?

Firstly, the members should be positive and energetic so that other members build positive attitudes toward them. Secondly, smile and Laugh at others when interacting with them. Additionally, nodding in agreement and exhibiting enthusiasm is a useful non-verbal cue to hold effective interactions. Group members should also be patient and open-minded, knowing that the primary tension will decrease with time. Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting to help the group focus on its task.

2. Storming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Power Struggle)

Storming is the second stage of Tuckman’s theory of Group Development. Group members become argumentative also emotional. The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership. Many groups try to skip this stage to avoid competition and conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing. The conflicts among group members are also known as noise in communication.

Group Develops in the Storming Stage:
  • Time of testing (Testing leader’s policies and assumptions and how they fit into the power structure).
  • Subgroups take shape
  • Subtle forms of rebellion occur
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
Secondary Tension in Tuckman’s Model

Firstly, frustrations and personality conflicts are experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group. Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence. They gain a high level of energy and agitation. The group becomes noisier, more dynamic, and physically active in this stage of group development. Usually, members start to speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking simultaneously. Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats. Finally, everyone is alert and listening intently.

How to Solve the Tension?

Making jokes is very important to avoid tension in the second stage of Tuckman’s theory. They should work outside the group setting to discuss group members’ difficulties and anxieties.

3. Norming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory (Cooperation)

Norming is the third stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Theory. Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and be task-oriented. They start developing “rules of engagement.” However, they feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open. Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge inside the group.

Group Develops in the Norming Stage:
  • Group more cohesive.
  • Less conflict with increasing team member interactions and interdependence of work tasks.
4. Performing Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Synergy)

Performing is the fourth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development theory. Members become fully engaged and eager to work at this stage. Members adjust and adapt to the situation and also start solving critical problems. Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high in this stage. However, disagreements occur, but members usually resolve them intelligently and amicably. Finally, Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; the members are cheerful, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.

Group Develops in the Performing Stage:
  • Activity focused on problem-solving.
  • Work done without hampering others.
  • The climate of open communication and full engagement.
5. Adjourning Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Closure)

Adjourning refers to the fifth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Group Development Theory. Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband. It also represents whether the group members will work together or form a new group. Finally, they are happy with their achievements but feel lost when the group dissolves.

  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
Group Develops in the Adjourning Stage:
  • Work completed; group moves on to other activities.
  • Opportunity for leaders to emphasize valuable lessons.
Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory of communication has significant theoretical and practical contributions to research. The Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory of Communication are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Although in 1965, Tuckman proposed a four-stage group development theory but later added the fifth stage called adjourning. Tuckman’s theory assists group members in subduing the group barriers. It also helps to adjust them in the group gradually.  Therefore, it is known as a group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group development theory consists of five stages that facilitate group formation and development.

Tuckman identified both the advantages and disadvantages of group communication; therefore, he provided suggestions for reducing the barriers to group communication.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory

The Tuckman model has both theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages. Many researchers have identified the pros and cons of the Tuckman theory. It is also known as the strengths and limitations of the Tuckman model.

Advantages of Tuckman’s Theory
  1. Framework for Understanding Group Dynamics: Tuckman’s model provides a structured framework for understanding the natural stages of group development. Firstly, Tuckman’s theory clarifies the specific stages of any group and team discussion; for instance, the five stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Tuckman’s theory helps to understand more about primary and secondary tension generated from group communication. It also recommends reducing the tensions among members and influencing group activities. It is essential to reduce the tension among the group because the tensions are obstacles to achieving the group goal. Additionally, the theory strengthens the relationship among group members and motivates them to be productive. Finally, the Tuckman group developing theory shows the perfect successful way of solving group uncertainty issues and gaining interdependent goals.
  2. Predictive Capability: By recognizing the typical stages of group development outlined in the model, leaders can predict potential challenges and issues that may arise. This predictive capability enables proactive intervention to address conflicts, facilitate communication, and foster cohesion within the group.
  3. Facilitates Team Building: Tuckman’s model emphasizes the importance of communication, trust-building, and goal-setting in group development. It provides guidance for leaders to actively promote team-building activities and create an environment conducive to collaboration and goal achievement.
  4. Enhanced Leadership Effectiveness: Understanding Tuckman’s model allows leaders to adapt their leadership style to the needs of the group at each stage of development. Effective leaders can provide support, direction, and empowerment as necessary, facilitating the group’s progress toward maturity and productivity.
Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory
  1. Oversimplification: Critics argue that Tuckman’s model oversimplifies the complexities of group dynamics. Real-world groups may not always linearly progress through the stages, and the model may overlook individual differences, cultural influences, and external factors that can impact group development.
  2. Focus on Conflict: The emphasis on conflict in the Storming stage of Tuckman’s model may reinforce negative stereotypes about group dynamics. While conflict can be a natural part of group development, an overemphasis on conflict may neglect the importance of relationship-building and collaboration in achieving group goals.
  3. Limited Practical Application: In dynamic and rapidly changing environments, Tuckman’s model may have limited practical application. Groups operating in fast-paced settings may not have the luxury of progressing through each stage sequentially and may need to adapt more quickly to changing circumstances.
  4. Neglect of External Influences: Tuckman’s model primarily focuses on internal group dynamics and may neglect external factors such as organizational culture, leadership style, and external pressures. Ignoring these influences may limit the model’s applicability in diverse organizational contexts.

Tuckman’s theory consists of five important stages that are difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions to maintain effective communication and a good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no instant solution to solve all conflicts in group communication, although it suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts. Furthermore, Tuckman’s model did not mention what would have happened if the storming stage did not end. Finally, Tuckman’s model has failed to discuss why the group changes over time. These are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Tuckman Theory of Communication, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/tuckmans-model-five-stages-of-group-and-team-development-theory/
Tuckman 1965 Reference Apa 7th Edition

Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin63(6), 384.