Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process

Communication Elements, the 9 Elements of Communication are Context, Sender, Encoder,  Messages, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise. Additionally, Definition and Examples of the 9 Elements or Components of Communication.

Communication Elements

Communication elements refer to essential tools of communication on which the communication process is conducted. Elements of communication initiate and regulate the full process of sharing information between the sender and receiver. Therefore, elements of communication are very important and interconnected parts of the communication process. The 9 elements of communication (Context, Sender, Encoder,  Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise) are essential tools or components to conduct an effective communication between sender and receiver. Communication elements are also known as the component of communication.

Communication Process

The communication process refers to the way of sharing information verbally or non-verbally between the sender and receiver. Verbal communication means communication through spoken words. Nonverbal communication refers to nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, facial expression, movement, eye contact, body language, and so more. Communication is the process of conveying the message via written text, speech, signals, visuals, or behaviour. It also a process of exchanging opinions and imparting knowledge between speaker and audience through elements of communication.

The 9 Elements or Components of Communication

 The 9 basic elements of the communication process are;

  1. Context
  2. Sender
  3. Encoder
  4. Message
  5. Channel
  6. Decoder
  7. Receiver
  8. Feedback
  9. Noise
Communication Elements, 9 elements of communication process
Figure 1: The 9 Elements of the Communication Process
 Examples of Communication Elements 

Ela was talking to her husband on a smartphone and she requested her husband to deposit $100 for the electricity bill. At the same time, her son was watching a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high. Therefore, her husband could not understand exactly how much needs to pay for the electricity bill. So, she repeated the same words to confirm him. Consequently, her husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill, and she replied that today is the last date to pay the electricity bill without penalty. In the meantime, she showed her angry face to her son to reduce TV volume. Instantly, her son reduced the volume.

Based on the example, the context is social context, Ela is the sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. In similar, her husband is also a sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Turning the thought into the message is the act of encoding. In contrast, transferring the message into thought is the process of decoding. The smartphone is the medium or channel of the communication process. TV volume is the environmental noise that bars the communication process.

1. Context

Context refers to the environment of communication in which the interaction happens or takes place. Communication context is the prime element of every communication process that controls the way of communication among senders and receivers. This context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you may feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues. You will not speak to an unknown person as you talk to your wife. So, the context of communication sets the environment of the communication process.

For example, Ela is talking to her husband informally, so she feels very comfortable. Therefore, the social context has been designed from this communication process. The context would be physical-context if they communicate face to face.

2.  Sender

A sender is a person who sends the message to the receiver. The sender is also known as the encoder of the message. The sender is the initiator of the communication process who starts the procedure via sending a message or information. A sender makes and uses symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. Therefore, a sender is a speaker or writer or a person who convey the information with the intention of sharing opinion, ideas, and message.

For example, Ela is the sender and encoder who sends messages to communicate with her husband. The sender is the person who sends the message to communicate with others. So, Ela is the sender also an element of the communication process.

3. Encoding

Encoding is the process of transforming abstract opinions and ideas into symbols such as words, pictures, signs, and marks. A symbol might represent or indicate opinions, ideas, and actions. In contrast, decoding is the process of transforming the symbol into opinion or thought. Literally,  encoding is the process of transformation of the subject into symbols. The process of encoding is connected to the sender and receiver. The message of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.

For example, Ela has converted his thought into words to convey the message to her husband that is called encoding. Here, converting the thought into words is the process of encoding. Words are serving as the spoken communication symbol. She called her husband and uttered some words to share an opinion as well as send the message.

4. Message

The message refers to the information, ideas, feelings, opinion, thought, attitude, and view that the sender wants to deliver to the receiver.  The message seems like a key element of any communication process. Any communication might happen to convey the message that is also known as the process of sharing ideas, opinions, thoughts, and information. Always, the sender wants to convey the message to communicate with the receiver. So, senders need to ensure that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable. Messages may convey through verbal and nonverbal cues. Verbal cues are the spoken language of the speaker, for instance, spoken words. On the other hand, nonverbal communication examples are facial expression, eye contact, physical appearance, posture, gesture, etc.

For example, Ela was speaking to convey the message that indicates verbal communication.  She also showed her angry face to her son to reduce the volume of TV that is called non-verbal communication.

5.  Channel

Channel is the way or tool of transmitting the message. It is also known as a medium in communication that conveys the message from sender to receiver.  Communicators use different channels to communicate in a distinct context of communication. In the face to face communication, the sender’s senses, for example, hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and tasting are the channel of transferring the information. On the other hand, organizations use Television, Newspapers, Radio as a channel to disseminate information. People use the computer and mobile phone to communicate with a person who lives far away from each other. Nowadays, many people use online meeting platforms to conduct virtual group meeting. Sometimes, people choose a written medium, such as a letter to convey the message, while other people choose an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient.

For example, Ela has transmitted the message through a smartphone so the smartphone is the channel of the communication process. She uses technology to convey messages therefore it is called mediated communication.

6. Decoding

Decoding is the process of translation of an encoded symbol into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. In this process, the receiver converts the symbols into thoughts received from the sender.  Decoding is the opposite process of encoding to get the meaning of the message.

For example, Ela has transformed his thought into words to convey the message to her husband that is called encoding. Whereas, her husband converts those words into thought to understand the message that is the process of decoding.

7. Receiver

A receiver is a person for whom the message is targeted in contrast to the sender. Therefore, the receiver is the audience of the communication process who decodes the message to perceive the meaning. The sender surely sends a message aimed at the receiver. Receivers can be one person or a group of people or a big amount of population. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of the recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.

For example, Ela has sent the message targeted at her husband to whom she wants to communicate. Hence, her husband is the receiver in this context of the communication.

8.  Feedback

Feedback refers to the response of the receiver or audience. It is one of the main elements of the effective communication process as it allows the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It also helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of the message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.).  It may take written form also in the form of memos, reports, etc.

Feedback differentiates the linear and transitional models of communication. The communication model is linear if there is no feedback in the communication process, for example, Lasswell’s Model of Communication.

On the other hand, the communication model will be identified as an interactive and transitional model of communication if the feedback is presented, for example, the Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication.

For example, Ela’s husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill.

9. Noise

Noise refers to the communication barrier or obstacles to effective communication. It is also known as communication noise or noise in communication. Noise is an unwanted element of the communication process that communicators always want to avoid during the interaction.

Noise in communication is any type of barrier that obstacles the effectiveness of the communication process. Actually, communication noises exist in all types of the communication process such as noise in face-to-face communication, noise in group communication, noise in mediated communication, etc. Communication will be more effective and interactive if there is no noise. Actually, noise is an unnecessary element in communication that distracts receivers to receive the message. The  5 types of noise in communication are Physical noise, Physiological noise, Psychological noise, Semantic noise and Cultural noise.

Communication Elements, Noise in Communication-5 types of noise in communication are Physical noise, Physiological noise, Psychological noise, Semantic noise and Cultural noise.
Noise in Communication- 5 Types of Noise in Communication

For example, Ela’s son was watching a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high when she was talking to her husband. The sound of the cartoon video bars Ela to listen to her husband’s speech so it is an example of a communication barrier or communication noise or communication distraction.

In conclusion, these 9 important elements (context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise) are the essential component of the basic communication process. The communication process might get faulty without any of these elements except noise.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, February 3). Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process. Educational Website For Online Learning.

M M Kobiruzzaman on ResearchGate

Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Communication: The process, barriers, and improving effectiveness. Schooling1(1), 1-10.

List of Social Groups- Types & Examples of Social groups

List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups & Examples of Social groups. The 10 Types of Social Groups are Primary group, Social Group, Self-help Group, Educational or Learning Group, Service Group, Service group, work-group Public group, Virtual Group, also Political Group.

Social Groups

Social groups refer to many groups in society that formed by more than 2 people who communicate regularly to achieve individual as well as their respective group goal. The people in the same group share similar characteristics, mutual expectation and common identity. In society, many groups are prevalent since thousands of years ago, for example,  learning group, work-group, self-help group and so more.

Group communication has many stages, tensions, conflicts and so more that need to be maintained to achieve the final goal. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group discussion are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Members must need to overcome all these stages to achieve the independent and interdependent goal. Additionally, the four types of barriers in group communication are Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

List of Social Groups or Types of Social Group

The 10 Types of Social Groups are:
  1. Primary Group
  2. Social Group
  3. Self-help Group
  4. Educational or learning Group
  5. Service Group
  6. Civic Group
  7. Work-Group
  8. Public Group
  9. Virtual Group
  10. Also, Political Group

Based on the research, the author has revealed a list of the top 10 types of social groups. The list of the top 10 types of social groups with the overall purpose and example given below.

1. Primary Group

Some textbooks use also “long-standing group”, because of long term relationship. Firstly, Satisfy primary needs (needs for inclusion [affiliation, belonging] also affection [love, esteem]. The use of interpersonal communicative behaviours, for example, self-disclosure, empathy, trust also perceived understanding.

For example, Nuclear family, Roommates, and Several friends who meet daily around a table (best friends), co-workers who regularly share Coffee breaks.

2. Social Group

Some textbooks use also “secondary group”, usually formed for the purpose of doing work. Completing a project, solving a problem, also making a decision. The social group shares a common interest or engage in a common activity although an intimate relationship can develop among members

For example, Athletic Teams, and Peer Groups.

3. Self-help Group

Individuals who share a common problem or life situation. To offer support and encouragement to members who want or need help. Anonymous and support groups are available on the Internet providing help for health, personal, or relationship issues.

For example, Doctor Budak and MyEndosis.

4.Educational or Learning Group

Usually, the Educational or Learning Group is primarily discovering and developing new ideas and ways of thinking.
This group is intended to enhance members’ skills, abilities, also cognitive processes.  Actually, members hope to gain additional knowledge or improve behaviour.

For example, Professional Workshops, Health and Fitness Classes (Yoga).

5. Service Group

The service group is composed largely of volunteers who donate their time, energy, and effort to help others in need of a particular service or who lack something that would help them lead a functional life. The task of this group is to help someone less fortunate. To support worthy causes that help people outside the group.

For example, PT Foundation and Kiwanis.

6. Civic Group

A civic group is formed to support worthy causes that help people within the group.

For example, Fire and Police Auxiliary Groups.

7. Work-group

Work-group is also known as decision-making and problem-solving groups (solving and dealing with specific issues)-Occurs within an organizational context. Members complete specific tasks and routine duties on behalf of an organization whose members take collective responsibility for the task.

For example, Standing committees, Taskforces, and, Management Teams.

8. Public group

A public group is focused to discuss important issues in front of or for the benefit of the public. However, the members of this group are key decision-makers.

For example, Symposiums, Panel discussions, and Forums.

9. Virtual Group

The task-oriented group can collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. Members of the virtual group work interdependently on a task but from different physical locations via communication technology. This group evolves into a virtual community or a group that meets regularly in cyberspace for members to share their experiences, opinions, as well as knowledge on a particular topic or interest. Virtual group communicate via virtual meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom meeting, Microsoft Team, and so more. 

For example, a CEO from another country

10. Political Group

A political group is formed to discuss important issues of the political party and contribute to countries well being.

For example, the Democratic Party, Liberal Party, and many more.

Examples of Social Groups

List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups & examples of social group