Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism

Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism & Photography. The 8 Types of Photojournalism are Spot News, General News, Feature Sports, Action Sports, Features, Portrait/Personality, Pictorial, also Illustration. Types of photojournalism pdf.

Types of Journalism

Photojournalism

Photojournalism refers to explaining a moment, issue, incident, or story by using photography. It is a way of storytelling that represents a story visually via photos. Photojournalism is one of the significant types of print journalism that has become an essential part of journalism.

Types of Photojournalism

Different Types of Photojournalism in Photography

The 8 Types of Photojournalism are:

  1. Spot News Photojournalism
  2. General News Photojournalism
  3. Feature Photojournalism
  4. Sports Action Photojournalism
  5. Sports Features Photojournalism
  6. Portrait/Personality Photojournalism
  7. Pictorial Photojournalism
  8. Illustration Photojournalism
1. Spot News Photojournalism

Spot news photographs carry an urgent, unplanned, and often unpleasant or undesirable ambiance. The coverage cannot be scheduled in advance. Spot news photography includes automobile accidents, airplane crashes, tornadoes, fires, murders, bank robberies, and so more. It also represents various acute, exciting, and usually noteworthy occurrences that help characterize life. Usually, spot news occurs without notice and ends quickly, or its most newsworthy aspects do. Unless aftermath photos are acceptable, so photographers must arrive soon. Many newspaper photographers use police monitors, cellular telephones, social media platforms, for example, Facebook, Twitter to get spot news.

Types of Photojournalism- Example photo of spot photojournalism

Covering Spot News

The key to successfully covering spot news, once the photographer has arrived, is to quickly ascertain what is going on and decide which aspect is the most important and truthful—which element is the most appropriate truth. Then photographers marshal all the technological and creative aspects of photojournalism to inform readers well within appropriate legal restraints and ethical limitations. Photographers should always record what appears to be the essential aspect first. It would help if you made every reasonable effort to keep intrusion to a minimum—by using attention-getting flash, stay physically as far from the action as possible, respect police lines, take care not to destroy potential evidence—by walking on them.

Spot news often presents two sides: the hard-core event and secondary but often humanizing aspects.

2. General News Photojournalism

Journalistic organizations schedule the general news photojournalism process is termed general or planned news. Covering general news may not have the adrenaline-producing excitement of raging fires, police shootouts, etc., but this category regularly offers photojournalists opportunities to inform readers about significant happenings. General news allows photojournalists to plan is knowing a story—what it is, where it came from, where it is, and where it probably is headed. If time allows, delve into subjects so you can make informed decisions about coverage and emphasis—can avoid covering the superficial and obvious gimmick set up. Photojournalists should get familiar with the subject and physical layout of coverage sites.

Covering General News

Must be cooperative with reporters from your organization who can help you in your quest to inform readers visually. Reporters can provide insight into a story that photojournalists might miss.

Types of Photojournalism- Hard News
Two Types of General News
  1. Hard News: Something that’s happening now. It’s “important” news. Seeks to inform rather than entertain.
  2. Breaking News: Hard news that’s happening right now. An ongoing story. 
3. Features News Photojournalism

The feature is a broad category that includes images with at least some news value and pictures that may easily fit in one or more other non-news categories.

Two Types of Feature photojournalism  are:

1) Lighthearted images that entertain more than inform.

2) Serious images that inform more than entertain.

For example, light-hearted images are squirrels chewing on nuts, children playing in large boxes, parents pushing children on swings.

For example, serious images are dying people with AIDS mounting a valiant fight against the disease, a child violin prodigy destined for fame. Serious images convey news overtones or connections or probe the life of their community, to reach toward their subjects’ hearts and souls.

Editors tend to use features when space is available, and they have no images of a more severe and essential nature or when the graphically dull page needs sprucing up.

4. Sports Action Photojournalism 

Sports action images are interested in capturing the actions as they happen. Photographing sports action is dangerous. 

However, there are three essential ways to minimize your risk in covering spots action and to ensure you record critical moments are:

  1. Firstly, knowing how games are played.
  2. Secondly, knowing the strengths, weaknesses, and preferences of players and coaches.
  3. Finally, constantly being alert to potential as well as actual action.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Action Photojournalism 

Covering Sports Action

1. Using telephoto lenses of 180mm and longer is suitable for sports action coverage.

2. Motor drives are highly desirable because no photographer can regularly capture the height of action with a single manual exposure.

3. Monopods also are highly desirable when using telephoto lenses because monopods provide a relatively steady platform

4. Unless they have a specific reason to do otherwise, photographers should follow the ball in games where a ball is used.

5. Photographers should carry a short telephoto and a wide-angle or a zoom equivalent while covering the action. This allows photographers to record other scenes related to the game, particularly features and activities close to them.

5. Sports Features Photojournalism

Sports feature pictures are the same as features, except they always involve sports. Photographers typically take these pictures immediately before, during, or after sporting events and may take them at other times. Sports features round out sports events by revealing their off-stage activities. They humanize sports, showing the emotions of players, coaches and spectators and conveying other game-related activities important but arguably secondary to gameplay.

For Example, opposing coaches embracing after a hard-fought game, a player on the losing side weeping, etc.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Features Photojournalism

6. Portrait / Personality Photojournalism

The portrait/Personality category is not all faces, but it offers glimpses into hearts and souls. The photographer lets readers walk in the shoes of those pictured.

Although faces lend themselves to the person’s scrutiny, portrait/personality images need not be facial views to probe for deeper meaning. Back pictures and body forms can speak volumes. Good portrait/personality images reveal as much about the photographer as the photographer. Only image-makers attuned to nuances of nonverbal communication and comfortable with personal interaction can consistently visually plumb subjects’ inner selves. Actually, it represents emotion and sympathy.

Types of Photojournalism- Portrait Photography

7. Pictorial Photojournalism

Outstanding images in the pictorial category showcase the artistic side of photojournalism. Pictorials typically depend on light and form and their interaction. These images make readers pause, perhaps to reminisce about pleasant and similar experiences, or to feel a little better also a little brighter.

 Pictorial typically entertains more than inform.

8. Illustration Photojournalism

Illustration photojournalism refers to combined or manipulated images that create a “new” image. Nevertheless, news photographers can not manipulate a picture without calling it a photo illustration.  Images in this category visually try to convey ideas and concepts, and products. Both categories demand a particularly high technical photographic expertise and keen, incisive minds that can produce images that clearly convey the intended messages while doing so in clever, eye-catching ways.

Example Photo of Illustration Photojournalism

Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence. Media Convergence in Journalism. Who and when establish Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence. Characteristics of New Media Audiences.

Convergence

Convergence means converging multiple items united things to get benefits.  It is the process of forming a unique thing by utilizing two or more things. The convergence has been happening in all sectors to meet people’s demands. This world is very famous in the medical discipline. As per the technological revolution, technological and media convergence have been trends that are impossible to reverse.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the 6 types of convergence are technological convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economic convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to the process of merging different types of media outlets to promote the program and media content. The traditional and new media have been merged to adjust to new technology. There are many types of convergence, such as technological convergence and cultural convergence. The new technology and culture have changed human lifestyles. Additionally, technological and cultural convergence forces the mass media to converge with other mainstream and new media.

Media Convergence Example

Example of Media Convergence 

For example, the Indian most popular reality TV show name is “Indian Idol.” It is a singing competition Television series. Sony Entertainment Television telecasts the full episodes. Firstly, the candidates need to download the Sony liv app for registration. Sony Television has its social media pages to promote the programs. The TV authority uses social media platforms to promote upcoming episodes as most people access new media sites more than traditional media. They also request their audiences to vote for their favorite contestants via smartphones. The audiences can provide their opinions via social media platforms, for example, Facebook and Instagram. Sometimes, they use FM and traditional radio to advertise the program. In sum, the program authority merges Sony Television, smartphones, radio, Facebook, and YouTube channel to promote the program successfully. It is an example of media convergence in the digital era.

Media Convergence in Journalism

Media convergence in journalism means mutually utilizing the print, broadcast, and online media to promote the news. Journalists use many media to spread the news among the maximum number of people locally and internationally. Media convergence in journalism appears as a significant step to survive in the new media age. There are two types of media convergence in journalism: (1) media convergence in collecting news and (2) media convergence in reporting the news. Firstly, journalists collect information from other media, and they cite the source name when publishing information. Television channels disseminate news from other channels such as radio, TV, newspapers, and social media.

Secondly, media authority uses multiple media to publish the the news. People prefer to read online newspapers from social media sites rather than printed papers. Therefore, journalists publish the news via a printed newspaper and website portal and share them on social media platforms to reach more audiences.

Example of Media Convergence in Journalism

For example, The Star is the most popular newspaper outlet in Malaysia. A journalist of “The Star” has collected information from Malaysiakini. The Star has published the news via printed newspapers and online portals. They have also shared the news link via Facebook page to reach the news among social media users. The authority has converged few media to spread the news among a maximum number of audiences.

Technology Convergence

A long time ago, people used to listen to Radio to get news, Television to watch drama, camera to capture the photo, and bookshelf to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfill all their needs.

Who and when establish Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Elements of Media Convergence

The five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political convergence.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content all together that is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computer and smartphones have digitilized the content, and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page, providing breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has its both positive and negative impact on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular communication platform, also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge so everyone can watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet published printed newspapers, and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expanded their business interest and merged with other companies. In the 1990s, industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994), Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices, also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry through commenting on social media platforms. It is called textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It not only brings the similarity between political parties but also policies inside the parties.

Characteristic of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do—for example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education as well as social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • Audiences are the innovators.

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability.
In Conclusion, If someone asks me, do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/media-convergence-example-elements-of-media-convergence-in-communication/