5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap. Examples of the 5 Gaps of service quality.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality

What is the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model?

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality means Servqual gaps model that describes the customer experiences and service quality provided by the organization. It articulates the gap between customers’ expectations and the service provided to them in different stages of the service providing process.  The service quality will be high when the customers’ perception meets the expectation but the quality is low when the customer’s perception cannot meet the expectation. The Servqual model is also known as the 5 gap model that represents a customer-satisfaction framework.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap.
Figure 1: 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual Gaps Model
5 Gaps of Service Quality

The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are

  1. Knowledge Gap
  2. Policy Gap
  3. Communication Gap
  4. Delivery Gap
  5. Customer Gap
Gap 1: Knowledge Gap

The knowledge gap refers to the difference between the company’s perception of what the customer expects from the industry and the exact expectation of the customers. This gap can grow if management doesn’t focus on the customer’s expectations thoroughly.

There are many reasons that can increase the knowledge gap, for example:

  • Not focusing on what customers expect.
  • Lack of upward communication.
  • Insufficient market analysis.
  • Less focus on relationships.
  • Failure to understand customer complaints.
  • Lack of interaction between management and customer.
Example of the Knowledge Gap

The user of Netflix wants to see the upcoming movie trailers on the website. So, Netflix would suffer this gap if it did not provide the upcoming movie list.

Gap 2: Policy Gap

The policy gap is the difference between management perceptions of the customer needs and the translation of those perceptions into service delivery policies and standards. This gap occurs because of the dissimilarity of what the customer wants and what the management provides for the customers.

There are many reasons that can grow the policy gap, for instance:

  • First of all, Insufficient commitment to service quality
  • Additionally, Lack of task standardization
  • Moreover, Lack of goal setting
  • Further, Shortness of customer service standards.
  • Also, Inadequately described service levels.
  • Finally, Failure to continually update service level standards.
Example of the Policy Gap

Netflix will suffer from the policy gap if it uploads the upcoming movie trailers after releasing the movie. People want to watch the movie trailer before releasing the movie.

Gap 3: Delivery Gap

The delivery gap is the dissimilarity between the standard of the service delivery policies of the company and the actual delivery of the service. This problem may occur because of the communication gap, poor technology, and inappropriate supervisory on productions in the industry.

This gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry, for example;

  • Firstly, Lack of teamwork to deliver service or product
  • Secondly, the lack of knowledge of the employee about the product or service
  • Thirdly, Insufficient human resources.
  • In addition, the Service performance gap.
  • Further, the Role ambiguity and role conflict – unsure of what your remit is and how it fits with others.
  • Moreover, the Poor employee or technology fit – the wrong person or system for the job.
  • Also, the Inappropriate supervisory control or lack of perceived control – too much or too little control.
Example of Delivery Gap

Netflix may experience this gap if it uploads the lower video quality movie.

Gap 4: Communication Gap

The communication gap refers to is the gap between what the company advertises about the products and what exactly the customer gets delivered. It occurs when the company cannot provide services or products according to the commitment.  It is a very important dimension because it may lead to customer disappointment.

This communication gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry including;

  • Over-commitment.
  • Lack of integration between communication and production department.
  • Inadequate communications between the advertising teams and the operations department.
Example of Communication Gap

Netflix may suffer this gap if it is unable to telecast the HD video that promised to offer.

Gap 5: Customer Gap

The customer gap is the difference between customer perceptions of the experience and customer expectations of the service.  Many organizations are not conscious of this gap; therefore, they are losing a big number of customers overnight.

However, the 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness.

In conclusion, the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality is also known as the Gap model that intended to analyze gaps and problems between organizations and customers. Finally, the customer gratification will come out through the model that is a very important factor for continual improvement as well as the business.

Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. Servqual model of service quality, also RATER model. The Five Dimensions of Service Quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, also Responsiveness.

Five Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality refers to the SERVQUAL Model of 5 key service dimensions, such as Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. Servqual model or five dimensions of service quality is also known as the Service Quality Model.  SERVQUAL Model is a multi-dimensional research process intended to measure the gap scores between expected and perceptions of service quality of the customers based on five dimensions. The three American marketing scholars A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry, produced and implemented this model.

Therefore, the five service quality dimension model is also known as the SERVQUAL Model or RATER model introduced between 1983 and 1988.

SERVQUAL Model

Servqual model refers to the five dimensions of the service quality that measure the customer’s expectations. The Servqual model classifies the elements or components of service quality known as five critical service quality dimensions. Although the model developers initially proposed ten service quality dimensions, many experts later finalize only five dimensions of service quality: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness. The marketing students formed an acronym RATER from the first capital letter of every dimension or component. However, this model recommends the most common causes of service quality problems after measuring the gaps.

Servqual Model 10 Dimensions

However, Initially, the introducers of the Servqual model proposed ten dimensions of service quality that are as follows:  Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Knowing the Customer,  also, Tangibles.

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. 5 Dimensions of Service Quality Example are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, Responsiveness. 5 components of service quality. 5 dimensions of service.
Figure 1: 5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model

Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are
  1. Reliability
  2. Assurance
  3. Tangibles
  4. Empathy
  5. Responsiveness.
1. Reliability

Reliability is an essential dimension of the Servqual model that confirms the capacity to provide services exactly, on time, and credibly. Consistency is a critical factor for providing assistance or product to the customers on time with error-free conditions. You have to respect the commitment to give your service on time accurately as you promised to them.

For example, the organization is sending mail to the customers every day on time.

2. Assurance

Assurance means creating trust and credibility for the customers. It depends on the employee’s technical knowledge, practical communication skills, courtesy, credibility, competency, and professionalism. Therefore, these skills will help the organization to gain customer trust and credibility.

The assurance dimension combines four factors; for example, competence, courtesy, credibility, and security. Firstly, competence means having the requisite skills and knowledge.
Courtesy refers to the politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact staff.
Credibility is the trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the staff.
Finally, security means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt.

Example of the assurance dimension

The employee is showing respect and being polite to the customers while servicing them.

3. Tangibles

Tangibles represent the physical facilities, employees’ appearance, equipment, machines, and information system. It focuses on facilitating materials and physical facilities.

For example, the organization maintains a clean environment, and staff follows the appropriate dress code.

4. Empathy

Empathy means focusing on the customers attentively to ensure caring and distinguishing service. It is an essential attitude in some countries in the world to serve every customer individually. It is also a great process to satisfy customers psychologically and increase confidence, trust, and loyalty. The company might lose its customers due to the lack of empathy inside the employees; therefore, they need to ensure compassion.

Additionally, empathy is a combination of the following factors:

  • Access (physical and social) – (For example, approachable and ease of contact).
  • Communication – (For instance, keeping customers informed in a language they understand and listening to them).
  • Understanding the customer – ( For example, making an effort to get to know customers and their specific needs).

For example, they are an active listener when customers are speaking and recognizing regular customers by name.

5. Responsiveness

Responsiveness refers to the eagerness to assist customers with respect and provide quick service to satisfy. This dimension focuses on the two essential factors, including willingness and promptness. So, you have to ensure that the customer is getting their service quickly without delay and make the customers feel that you are very interested in helping them. Responsiveness will be defined by the length of time when customers wait for the answer or solution. In short, responsiveness solves the customer problem as soon as possible by providing expected information or replacing products.

Example of the Responsiveness Dimension

The employee keeps no customer in waiting serial and replaces the product quickly before finishing the promised period.

SERVQUAL Instrument

The instruments of the SERVQUAL Model consist of 22 perceptions items. The author has used these instruments to evaluate consumers’ thoughts and expectations regarding the quality of service. The developers of the Servqual model designed 22 perceptions items also 22 expectation items to set into five dimensions of service quality. The gap score of the customers will come out ideally.

Servqual instruments- 22 scale items
Figure 2: SERVQUAL Instrument- 22 Scales Items

The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are Knowledge Gap, Policy Gap, Communication Gap, Delivery Gap, and Customer Gap.

In conclusion, the Servqual Model or Service Quality Model has become very popular and worldwide accepted because of increasing the customers’ service quality. It is a multi-dimensional research system that represents a customer satisfaction framework to satisfy customers and stakeholders.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, September 6). Five Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/servqual-model-five-key-service-dimensions-servqual-gaps-reasons/