Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) Case Study in Malaysia

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) Case Study in Malaysia. Background Information, A Case study related to the Personal Data Protection Act. Also, Suggestions to improve the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA).  Example of Personal Data Protection policy of an organization.

Personal Data Protection Act

The personal data protection act refers to the written regulation of the government to protect consumers’ sensitive documents. PDPA is the acronym for the personal data protection act. The Malaysian government created and regulated the personal data protection act to protect consumers’ personal information, such as users’ names, IDs, and phone numbers.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 in Malaysia

The Malaysian Parliament passed the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) of Act 709 in May 2010 (Personal Data Protection Act, n.d.). After passing the bill related to the Malaysian parliament’s data protection act 2010, the king sent it to get royal assent. On 2 June 2010, it received royal approval. The Malaysian government started implementing the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 on 15 November 2013 by notification in the government gazette. The prime objective of this act is to protect personal information from the perspective of commercial transactions.

The most general principle of this act is to prohibit people from using others’ data without consent. “Personal Data Protection Department (PDPD) is an agency under the Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC).” The prime duty of the PAPD department is to supervise the handling of personal data of individuals related to commercial transactions. PAPD wants to ensure that no one misuses and misapplies the other party’s data without taking concern. The maximum penalty is between RM100k to 500k and or between 1 to 3 years imprisonment for non-compliance (Shahwahid & Miskam, 2014). No amendment or modification has been noticed in the Personal Data Protection Act 2010.

The PDPA 2010 act was a need to actualize to enable the consumer’s confidence in electronic commerce and business transactions. Before passing this act, the number of credit card fraud cases increased in Malaysia. The theft was selling personal data without customer consent. After passing the PDPA 2010, the amount of fraud cases related to bank cards has been reduced. Now people can trust the company to provide their personal information without hesitation. Therefore, companies and clients’ parties get benefits from the PDPA 2010 act.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia
Figure 1: Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia
Personal Data Protection Act 2010 Case Study

Due to the popularity of social media platforms, cybersecurity has become a major concern that would cause a personal data breach. In one of the cases from Facebook, in December 2019, the personal data of 267 million Facebook users were exposed to an online database. These personal data consist of users’ names, users’ IDs, and phone numbers.

Although Facebook contacted the internet service provider to remove these data from the servers after discovering the data leak, these data were also posted on a hacker forum already. Regarding the possible reason for this data breach, the security researcher of Facebook claimed that the data is most likely the result of exploiting Facebook’s Application Program Interface (API) by hackers. Thus, it is essential to enforce a personal data protection act in vulnerable cyberspace.

In addition, relating this act specifically to the Malaysian context, on 3 May 2017, Khas Cergas Sdn Bhd, the company that owns Vitoria International College, was charged in the Sessions Court for processing the personal data of the former employee without a valid certificate of registration issued by the Personal Data Protection Department (PDPD). Specifically, this case breached section 16 (1) of the PDPA, which requires the data users to register the applicant and issue a certificate of registration by the PDPD. The company allegedly committed the offense at its premises on June 6, 2016. After the Sessions Court judge, the charge under section 16 (4) of the PDPA claimed on conviction; the company would be liable to a maximum fine of RM 500,000 or imprisonment up to three years, or both (Attorney General’s Chambers of Malaysia, 2016).

 Why is PADA Relevant to the New Media?

With the rapid development and progress of science and technology, the medium of information dissemination is constantly changing. The release of the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) in Malaysia impacted the new media environment. Next, the author will talk about why the PDPA is relevant now with the new media environment.

Firstly, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) gives people more control over their personal data. More and more people can easily get online due to the rapid development of the network. There are varieties of social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, etc. People steal other information to misuse. Unfortunately, a lot of criminals catch the opportunity to steal other people’s personal information. There is no doubt that stealing personal information is a terrible thing. If everyone knew the benefits of the Personal Data Protection Act, people could use it to control their personal data. Thus, the Personal Data Protection Act is relevant now with the new media environment.

Secondly, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) deals with personal data related to commercial transactions. Since humans appeared, business activities have not stopped. The release of the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) in Malaysia has significantly reinforced personal data protection concerning commercial transactions. It imposed strict restrictions on some people who collect and record data. There is no denying that this action protects the unauthorized use of personal information. Thus, the Personal Data Protection Act is relevant now with the new media environment.

Last but not least, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) lets a person reduce unwanted telemarketing messages received.  Has an advertising call harassed you? Due to the popularity of mobile phones and some mobile devices, more and more people’s personal information does not feel leaked. People want a safe network environment where all information keep safe. Therefore, the Personal Data Protection Act(PDPA) is relevant now with the new media environment.

Suggestions to Improve the PDPA 2010

Although the establishment of PDPA has provided great help for protecting personal information at the commercial level, some problems have still been exposed after a long period of practice.

Firstly, we must reduce the impact on the personal data life cycle management process. Collection, use, storage, and destruction should be minimized in every aspect.

Secondly, comprehensively consider the operating methods of different companies and find the best and generally applicable specific terms to minimize the changes in business processes made by the company to adapt to the terms.

Third, establishing a central database to achieve unified management of global information can facilitate the integration of information and simplify cross-border personal data transmission. For example, everyone uses ZOOM to conduct virtual courses during the MCO. After installing ZOOM, there will usually be a pop-up window at the bottom of the screen “Allow ZOOM to obtain your location permission.”  Usually, no one cares about this problem, but you expose your geographical location. The next step is to bind the account.

Usually, everyone binds their Google account by default so that ZOOM directly obtains our email address. We recall further, what personal information did you provide when you first registered your Google account? Name, date of birth, nationality, region, these four items are the most basic personal privacy. Since we provide ZOOM with our Google mailbox, the personal information we leaked when registering Google mailbox does not rule out that ZOOM’s company has learned all of them. Imagine that strangers have completely wiped out the ID card and passport that you usually hide in the innermost layer of the wallet or the innermost drawer.

What should we do in this situation? We can only rely on legal protection. According to PDPA, “from a business perspective, the organization cannot use other people’s information without their permission.  When we registered with Google, it was equivalent to allowing Google to obtain and use our personal information.  However, for ZOOM, we only allow it to bind our Google account (Google mailbox), which does not mean that we also agree to it to obtain our name, age, nationality, and region.

Conclusion

With the rapid development and wide application of information technology, human beings have gradually entered the era of new media. The protection of personal data is also critical. In the media field, the continuous changes in media technology have profoundly impacted the media.

The Survey Report on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Chinese Netizens (2015) shows that in the past year, netizens have lost approximately RMB 80.5 billion, or RMB 124 per capita, due to personal information leakage, spam, and fraudulent information. (The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. 2015). Personal data protection plays an important role in the media field. Personal data security even affects the security of collective interest, and the protection of corresponding laws and regulations is critical.

The world is suffering from data privacy leaks.  Therefore, the perfect way of solving the problem is to implement the privacy policy act. Many countries and regions in the world have strict regulations on data privacy and security. The release of PDPA in Malaysia has significantly reinforced personal data protection concerning commercial transactions.

Personal Data Protection Policy Example

The Personal Data Protection Policy sample conveys a better understanding of the Personal Data Protection policy. This is a  Personal Data Protection policy of a private university in Malaysia, Putra Business School.

Putra Business School Personal Data Protection Policy
References

Attorney General’s Chambers of Malaysia. (2016). Personal Data Protection Act 2010. http://www.agc.gov.my/agcportal/uploads/files/Publications/LOM/EN/Act%20709%2014%206%202016.pdf

Personal Data Protection Act (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.malaysia.gov.my/portal/content/654

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay PDF. Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media Essay IELTS. Advantages of Social Media Essay. Disadvantages of Social Media Essay. Also, Social Media Benefits and Drawbacks Essay.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

The essay on social media advantages and disadvantages describes social media platforms’ positive and adverse impacts. The most significant parts of an ideal essay are the introduction, body, and conclusion, and the additional elements are thesis statements, transitional verbs, and examples.

The essay on the advantages and disadvantages of social media includes the introduction, thesis statement, advantages, disadvantages, and conclusion. Nowadays, social media have become a widespread phenomenon. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of social media essays have become a crucial topic for students, educators, and academicians. Many students focus on social media essays to obtain excellent results in the IELTS exam. Additionally, the school, college, and university lecturers set this topic for the assignment and exam questions. The author demonstrates examples of social media’s advantages and disadvantages essay.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Introduction

Social media are the most significant blessing of technology in the modern era. Social media are mainly Internet-based tools and applications that people use for communicating, entertaining, and sharing information. The most common social media platforms are Facebook, TikTok, WhatsApp, Viber, Instagram, WeChat, Pinterest, Linked In, VK, etc. The total number of social media users is around 3.0 billion worldwide. Facebook has become one of the most famous social media that has managed to gain 2.30 billion monthly active users. It becomes a double-edged sword due to its positive and negative impact on society. The author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of social media platforms in society.

Advantages of Social Media

The advantages of social media are maintaining communication, sharing knowledge, and enhancing business.

Firstly, social media ease the communication system that contributes to building relationships. Nowadays, more than 90 percent of teenagers are using smartphones, and in the meantime, 45 percent of them surf the internet every day. For example, students utilize social media networking sites to conduct virtual meetings and classes. So, social networking sites benefit people in maintaining communication globally.

Additionally, Social media have become the most convenient tool for imparting and sharing knowledge. People can easily perceive how difficult educational life would be without using social networking platforms.  Every student acknowledges that Google has become the best lecturer for asking questions and seeking knowledge from the Google search engine. For example, educators adopt Google meet and webinar meeting platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Zoom meeting, Google Meet, etc. So, social media are the best grace of technologies from the perspective of sharing knowledge and expertise.

Furthermore, social media have a tremendous positive impact on the company from the viewpoint of marketing policy. Social media help organizations communicate with potential customers virtually. For example, the organization utilizes its official social media pages for corporate branding, product branding, social media marketing, paid marketing, website traffic enhancement, promotion, etc. In sum, selling products and services online has been easier for the blessing of social media.

People benefit from several viewpoints when using social media, such as education, communication, workplace, marketing, entertainment, etc.

Disadvantages of Social Media

On the other hand, the most critical disadvantages of social media are using them for cyberbullying, hacking, and addiction.

Firstly, teenagers utilize social media platforms to bully others, also known as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to harassing someone by sharing personal information on social networking sites. A study shows that around 50% of teenagers were bullied for cyberbullying in Bangladesh until 2016. In 2016, an American teenager named Megan Taylor Meier committed suicide for cyberbullying. For example, most teenagers get bullied on Instagram following Facebook, Snapchat, and YouTube.

Hacking is another negative consequence of using social media on society. Many people preserve their personal information, including photos, ID cards, and passports, on social networking sites. Hackers can hack this personal information and share them on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. Sometimes, they demand money from victims committing not disclosing their private photos. After all, it triggers victims to commit suicide; hence, it is another important negative consequence of social media platforms.

Moreover, social media’s most alarming negative impact on society is addiction. A statistic revealed that around 220 million people are now addicted to social media directly or indirectly. For example, many teenagers play games on social media sites instead of doing their daily tasks properly.

Conclusions

In short, Social media have both positive and negative impacts on individuals and companies. People are getting benefits when using social media to maintain communication, share knowledge, and enhance business. In contrast, some crimes are happening due to social media, such as cyberbullying and hacking. A significant number of teenagers are addicted to social media, which bars them from maintaining a healthy life. However, people can make social media a blessing tool by preventing negative societal impacts.

Advantages of Social Media Essay

Social media advantages essay discusses the benefits of social media sites in human life. It also includes the introduction, body, and conclusion. An example of a social media essay has been outlined.

Introduction

Have you ever wondered that half of the 7.7 billion people worldwide are using social media platforms? Social media refer to the internet-based networking system that eases human communication through computers, smartphones, and tablets. Around 3.8 billion people use social media, yet Facebook achieved around 2.74 billion active monthly users worldwide in 2021. Today I would like to talk to you about the positive role of social media in society. Nevertheless, social media have both positive and negative impacts on society. Regardless of the critics, the advantages of social media are practicing citizen journalism, maintaining emergency communication, and conducting a virtual education system.

Advantages of Social Media

Firstly, citizen journalism plays a significant role in creating social awareness and shaping public opinion. Citizen journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing information on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, etc. Social media allow citizen journalists to spread information quickly compared to traditional media. A study shows that around 45% of Americans consume news and information from social media platforms. For example, citizen journalists play a crucial role in the covid-19 pandemic by sharing the coronavirus death toll on Facebook every day.

Secondly, social media platforms have become the most convenient networking sites for emergency communication. The disaster management authority utilizes social media pages to conduct agency to community communication. Social media can spread any news quickly among a considerable number of people in the community. For example, in 2020, WHO, UN, UNESCO, and UNICEF disseminated the updated information on their social media pages regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media sites are undoubtedly effective tools for quick communication in emergency periods.

Finally, educators, students, and academicians currently utilize social networking sites to conduct virtual classes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many educational institutes conducted and regulated online courses through virtual meeting minutes, including Google Meet, Zoom meeting, and WhatsApp. As a result, students organize virtual meetings to complete group discussions and submit online meeting minutes. A study shows that social media enhance students’ communication skills; therefore, they perform better than average students who are not active on social networking platforms. So, it is another crucial benefit of social media in conducting a virtual education system.

Conclusion

In sum, social media are a blessing invention of technology in the 21st century, and it contributes a lot to information and communication technology (ICT). The three significant advantages of social media are practicing citizen journalism on social media, maintaining emergency communication, and conducting a virtual education system. Based on these positive social media roles, it is safe to say that social media benefit people immensely.

Disadvantages of Social Media Essay

The social media disadvantages essay discusses the adverse consequences of social media sites in human life. The article on social media’s disadvantages includes the introduction, thesis statement, body, and conclusion.

Introduction

Social media have brought a significant change in the communication sector.   Social media are also known as the new media; these have become an indispensable part of the modern lifestyle. According to the statistic report, more than 800 social media platforms globally. Nowadays, people can not imagine a day without using social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, and TikTok. However, it has both positive and adverse impacts on society. Apart from the positive consequences, social media’s most typical adverse effects on society are spreading fake news, negative reviews on business, and addictions.

Firstly, People opt-in to social media sites to spread fake and fabricated information for its availability. Many citizen journalists utilize these sites to disseminate misleading political issues. For example, Twitter banned  President Donald Trump’s account due to posting misleading information.

Secondly, social media can destroy the business due to the negative review from customers on social media. It also creates high customer expectations and a reduction in employee productivity. Study shows that a negative review on social media sites can diminish hundred positive comments.

Finally, Nowadays, Netizens are incredibly keen on social media, and they are spending most of their time here instead of traditional media. People are highly addicted to social media; therefore, they experience physical and mental illnesses.

Conclusion

Social media have both positive and negative consequences on society. Nobody can deny the blessing of social media to make our civil life more accessible from communication with each other beyond the country’s boundaries. The adverse consequences of social media are spreading fake news, negative reviews on business, and addictions. The government and policymakers should come up with a solution to the problem.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media

The essay on the advantages and disadvantages of social media outlines how to write a body paragraph of an essay with APA citation. The thesis statement and body paragraph of the essay on social media advantages and disadvantages have been illustrated here.

Thesis Statement

Social media help us communicate with each other, but it is also beneficial for education & marketing purposes.

Body Paragraphs 

First of all, social media have a great positive impact on the educational sector, and it assists students to nourish their knowledge with the teaching aids that are available online. Faizi, Afia, and Chiheb (2013) mentioned that students who are actively involved in social media could earn more knowledge easily in a better way. They also stated that social media had become a great platform that allows students to work in a group on projects and also enhance their individual knowledge capacity. In addition, social media allow everyone to access vast knowledge through various educational websites, knowledge-sharing portals, and online classes.

Greenhow and Lewin (2016) proposed that social media tools have several educational advantages for both the students and the teachers. They also said that it provides opportunities for further learning for people from all walks of life who can access the internet. In essence, it is clear that social media positively impacts the educational sector.

Secondly, social media are the biggest platforms for different brands and organizations to be used for marketing purposes. Many recognized brands use social media to promote their products and service to their targeted audiences. Barefoot and Szabo (2010) explain that social media marketing can be defined as the use of different social media platforms to be used in promoting an organization and its products to the targeted audience.  Furthermore, celebrities all over the world use social media to connect with their fans and followers, and they also used to do their publicity work. Wright (2015) claimed that celebrities also use social media channels to keep a good reputation and online presence. Additionally, the main intention behind this is to increase the number of fans and followers. In short, social media play a great role in the corporate and personal branding sectors.

References:

Barefoot, D., & Szabo, J. (2009). Friends with benefits: A social media marketing handbook. No Starch Press.

Faizi, R., El Afia, A., & Chiheb, R. (2013). Exploring the potential benefits of using social media in education. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP)3(4), 50-53.

Greenhow, C., & Lewin, C. (2016). Social media and education: Reconceptualizing the boundaries of formal and informal learning. Learning, media, and technology41(1), 6-30.

Wright, K. (2015). Social Media and Celebrities: The Benefits of a Social Media Presence.