David Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication Examples & Explanation

David Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication Example Situation. Berlo's Model of Communication Advantages and Disadvantages.

David Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication

SMCR communication model refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver formed communication theory developed by David Berlo in 1960. In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR communication model with four elements: Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver, which are essential elements of any communication process. Therefore, the SMCR communication model is known as Berlo's Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model. Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective. SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the primary communication process.

There are three types of communication models: linear, interactive, and transactional communication models. The SMCR communication model refers to the one-way communication system. So, the SMCR model is a linear model of communication where feedback is absent.

Models of Communication

Berlo's Model of Communication Example

Listening to a lecture in a classroom is a real-life example of David Barlo's SMCR communication model. Lecturer Delivering a Lesson Physically in a Classroom can be an example situation of Berlo's model of communication. The four essential elements of Barlo's model are the source, message, channel, and receiver. Firstly, the news lecturer is the source of knowledge who disseminates the information. The lessons are the message, and hearing and seeing are the channel. Finally, the students are receivers of messages who listen to the lecture. In this context, students can be a source of information when they provide feedback. David Berlo did not mention feedback in his model; therefore, it is designed to explain a one-way communication process.

Similarly, reading newspapers, books and magazines are example scenario of Barlo's communication model. Print and broadcast journalism primarily relate to one-way communication.

However, digital journalism generates two-way communication, including social media-based citizen journalism and blogging. The active audience can comment to express their opinion on social media sites including Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp.

Berlo's Model of Communication Diagram

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Figure 1: David Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication

David Berlo's Communication Model  Elements

The Four Key Elements of Berlo's Model of Communication are:
  1. Source
  2. Message
  3. Channel
  4. Receiver

1. Source

The source means the message's sender who initiates the communication process by sending information to the Receiver. David Berlo describes five factors related to the source: Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.

Communication skills

Communication skills refer to the ability to speak, read, write, and listen effectively. It also indicates the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. Communication will be more effective if the senders and receivers have excellent communication skills. The most common nonverbal communication examples are eye contact, facial expression, body language, gestures, posture, and so more.  The communication skill of the source or sender increases the effectiveness of the communication process.


Attitude is the psychological factor of the sender and Receiver that affects the message's meaning. It is also an established perception of a person in which they think or feel about something. Thus, the message's meaning depends on the source's attitude and the Receiver.


Knowledge indicates the level of actual information, familiarity, and experience on the discussion topic. The discussion topic is the message of the communication process. Therefore, the communicator feels comfortable discussing if the topic is familiar to them. However, knowledge does not imply the educational qualifications or degrees of the sender or receiver.

For example, a football player will be more interested in talking about football than cricket. On the other hand, a cricket player will surely feel comfortable discussing a cricket game. Here, knowledge indicates familiarity with the subject of the discussion topic or message.

Social Systems

Social systems refer to the values, beliefs, behaviors, rules and regulations, locations, and religions. These factors influence the method of the communication process as well as the meaning of the message.

For example, the speaker delivers an anti-America message in the American parliament election campaign. It is considerably sure that the audience will not receive and listen to his message attentively. It is an example of a location factor that is also part of the social system.


Culture refers to the social background of the Sender and Receiver. The meaning of the same message might be identical when people from different cultures interpret it. It is a significant factor from the perspective of nonverbal communication cues.

For example, exchanging "Salam" greetings with people is widespread in the Muslim community. Salam conveys a greeting message in the Muslim community; however, handshaking is another activity that also exchanges the same meaning. On the other hand, handshaking is a standard greeting among people in Western culture.

2. Message

The message is the primary substance conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the Receiver. David Berlo proposed another five factors related to the message: Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code.


Content refers to the entire body of the message from beginning to end. It is essential information for the discussion. Content is the whole script of the conversation.

For example, the lecturer is teaching students about noise in communication. So, the full speech about communication noise is the content of the message.


Elements refer to nonverbal communication cues such as facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, and body movement. It makes the conversation more effective and productive. So, communication might get boring without elements.

For example, the lecturer raises five fingers when mentioning the five basic noises in the communication process.


Treatment refers to the communication way in which the message is conveyed to the audience. The communication way affects the communication system. It represents the message packaging. Examples of treatment in communication are delivering messages formally and casually.

For example, the teachers speak formally when delivering speeches in the classroom. However, the lecturer talks very casually when meeting students outside of class.


The structure of the message describes the arrangement of the information. The effectiveness of the message depends on the message structure.

For example, the lecturer talks about the definition, types, and examples of communication noise. The students perceive the message clearly for its good arrangement.


Code in the message refers to the form of the message transmitted from sender to receiver. Examples of the code are text, audio, video, visual, and so more.

For example, the teacher is speaking in front of the students; hence, the code of the message is audio.

3. Channel

Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from sender to Receiver. There are many types of channels in communication, such as radio, newspapers, TV, phone calls, and social media. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the communication channel: hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. These five channels are a crucial part of the human communication process.

For example, a face-to-face class is more effective than an online class. The students can see the lecturer physically and hear the lecture. Nowadays, many institutes conduct virtual classes through premium. The channels denote the physical and virtual communication way to convey messages.

David Berlo mentions only five human senses as the communication channel, such as Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting.


People receive messages through listening. It is the most effective channel in the communication process. For example, students hear lectures in the classroom.


People accept messages through seeing. It is one of the crucial channels in nonverbal communication. People take less than one second to judge others by seeing their appearance. The audiences form a conception of the speaker based on body movement, facial expression, eye contact, and gesture. A proverb says that people can lie, but eyes never lie. It means people believe what they see more than what they hear.

For example, a lecturer asks students about their final exam. The student replied that it was an excellent exam; however, the student looked very worried while interacting with the lecturer. So, the lecturer does not believe the statement due to seeing the worried face. Watching television is another example of seeing channels in communication.


Touch refers to an effective nonverbal communication channel that conveys messages through touching. It is also known as Haptics in Nonverbal Communication. The most common examples of touching channels in communication are holding hands, hugging, tickling, and kissing. These touching styles represent different messages.


Smelling is another channel of the intrapersonal communication process.  The intrapersonal communication process means communicating with yourself. It is also known as olfactics nonverbal communication. People judge others based on the Fragrance they have used. A good smell creates a positive attitude toward the person. The perspiration odors form a negative perception of the person. A good fragrance represents a good personality.

For example, people smell flowers and fragrances to identify whether the flavor is good or bad.


Tasting refers to nonverbal communication channels through tasting something. For example, people test food to identify its deliciousness.

4. Receiver

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. David Berlo adds the same factors of the sources to the Receiver, such as Communication skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture, to the Receiver. Communication gets more effective when senders and receivers have similar skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Communication among people from the same culture and social system reduces communication noise during the interaction.

Berlo's Model of Communication Example Situation

(Berlo's Model of Communication Example Scenarios: A Marketing Officer Selling a New Television)

1. Source (S)

In this scenario, the marketing manager is the source of information who initiates the communication.

  • Communication Skills: The marketing manager should be a verbal and non-verbal communicator to convey the message effectively.
  • Attitude: The marketing manager needs to have a positive attitude and details information about the new television.
  • Knowledge: The sales manager should study the new product and the customer's demographic and psychographic background.
  • Social System: The manager works within the organizational structure and culture.
  • Culture: The manager’s approach and style might be influenced by the organizational culture and background of the audience.

2. Message (M)

The promotional information about the new television is the message.

  • Content: it is information about the new television, including components, usefulness, pricing, and launch date.
  • Elements: Verbal and non-verbal communication cues including artifacts, presentation slides, statistic report charts, and television images.
  • Treatment: The way of conveying information including formal presentation with a Q&A session.
  • Structure: The whole session includes an executive summary, product features, market analysis, and conclusion.
  • Code: The marketing manager uses language in promotional presentations, including technical terms, and possibly visual and audio elements.

3. Channel (C)

In this scenario, hearing and seeing are the channels in which a message is transmitted.

  • Hearing: The customers and sales team listen to the manager’s speech about the new television.
  • Seeing: The customers see visual aids and observe non-verbal cues.
  • Touching: Some audiences touch the new television to know more about it.
  • Smelling and Tasting: It does not apply to this product. However, it might be applicable for food items.

4. Receiver (R)

In this scenario, the clients are receivers of the information.

  • Communication Skills: The customers and sales team must have good listening and little knowledge about the product.
  • Attitude: It indicates the customer's willingness to buy the new products. It might be positive or negative towards the new television. It is also relevant to psychological noise in communication.
  • Knowledge: Similar to the marketing manager, the customers and sales team should have knowledge and positive attitudes toward the new television.
  • Social System: The marketing session is designed and operated according to the company’s hierarchical structure and social norms.
  • Culture: The customer's cultural background and corporate culture may influence their perception of the message.
Berlo's Model of Communication Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Berlo's SMCR Communication Model

Berlo's communication model explains the communication system with four primary and 15 sub-components. It shows a giant diagram to describe the communication process thoroughly. The SMCR model explains the communication process elaborately.

The source or sender and receiver contain similar components. This model articulates that the sender and receiver convey and receive messages simultaneously. It indicates interactive communication even though it is a linear communication model.

It focuses on human communication emphasizing the skills, attitudes, knowledge, and social systems of both the sender and receiver.

Disadvantages of the Berlo's SMCR Communication Model

David Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication is the linear communication model; therefore, feedback is absent. Hence, the SMCR model can't explain the transactional communication processes like speaking over a smartphone.

Additionally, it illustrates a complex communication model that is difficult to understand. This model troubles students in perceiving the process.

Moreover, Berlo's SMCR communication model avoids noise, a significant communication element. It excludes another communication element- context. It is impossible to describe the communication process without noise and context.


SMCR is one of the significant linear communication models that describe the communication process through multiple elements, including Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. It is a linear model of communication since feedback is excluded.

Film Review Writing of 3 Idiots For Students Example

Film Review Writing of 3 Idiots For Students Example PDF. 3 Idiots Movie Review Essay PDF.  Movie Review Writing Class 11, 12 3 Idiots.

Film Review

A film review refers to a feature article analyzing the quality of the film strategically. It is a process of providing an opinion based on the strengths and weaknesses of the film. The film review is the most common type of feature writing, followed by the travelogue, how-to, and personal feature story.

The film review statement is formed based on the film’s plot, dialogue, acting, theme, location, sound, music, and more. A film review is a process of analyzing a film thoroughly and critically. The 3 Idiots is the most famous Indian film for writing a film review feature story. The film review story writing article includes a description, strengths, weaknesses, and the writer's opinion.

Film Review of 3 Idiots For Students Class 11, 12
3 Idiots Movie Review Article For Students

Film Review of 3 Idiots For Students

Description of the 3 Idiots Film

The 3 Idiots is a 2009 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani. It has managed to secure a position in the top Bollywood movie list. It is one of the best motivational blockbuster films in the history of Bollywood. The 3 Idiots film has become the highest-grossing opening-day collection film. It has also become the highest opening weekend collection film in India’s history of Bollywood films. It is one of the first Indian films that earned Rs 200 Crores net at the box office. Finally, it earned Rs 395 crores globally.

The most famous Indian actor Aamir Khan played the leading role in the film 3 Idiots. Apart from Aamir Khan, R. Madhavan, Sharman Joshi, Kareena Kapoor, Boman Irani, and Omi Vaidya acted in the lead roles. They are also very familiar faces in the Bollywood world. The 3 Idiots film is directed by Rajkumar Hirani and Produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. The film director offered Actor Shah Rukh Khan the character of Rancho. He declined the offer citing date issues, and the role went to Aamir Khan.


The three essential roles of the 3 Idiots film are Aamir Khan as Rancchoddas "Rancho" Shyamaldas Chanchad or Phunsukh Wangdu, R. Madhavan as Farhan Qureshi, Sharman Joshi as Raju Rastogi. They studied engineering at the Imperial College of Engineering and shared a room in a hostel. Apart from them, the additional stars are Kareena Kapoor as Pia, Omi Vaidya as Chatur Ramalingam (Silencer), Boman Irani as Viru Sahastrebuddhe (Virus), Parikshit Sahni as Mr. Qureshi,  and Mona Singh as Mona Sahastrebuddhe (pia’s sister).


The Imperial College of Engineering is one of India's best colleges for engineering studies. Rancho was admitted as a rich man's son in India, while Farhan and Raju are from an average family. Farhan dreamed of being a wildlife photographer, but his father insisted he study engineering because it was his wish. Indeed, Rancho was the son of a gardener.

Raju has come to study to uplift his family's fortunes because he is from an impoverished family. Rancho's passion is earning knowledge rather than the conventional obsession of the other students with exam ranks. With his different approach, Rancho suffers the wrath of the dean of the college, Professor Viru Sahastrabudhhe (ViruS) (Boman Irani). Rancho terms the dean as ViruS.

He irritates his lecturers by giving creative and unique answers. Joy was also a student of the Imperial College of Engineering. She had requested the dean to extend his major project on the compassionate grounds that his father had suffered a stroke. But, Virus refused, saying he was utterly unmoved by his son's accidental death after being hit by a train. Rancho condemns the learning system of the institution, blaming it for Lobo's death.

Threatened by Rancho's talent and free spirit, ViruS labels him an "idiot," and he attempts to destroy his friendship with Raju and Farhan. In contrast, (Omi Vaidya) Chatur Ramalingam, or "Silencer," is the model student in the eyes of ViruS, who always wants to get high marks through memorizing rather than understanding.

Finally, Rancho comes first, and he was awarded ViruS's pen that he had been keeping for a few decades to gift to the most brilliant student.

3 Idiots Film Review- Opinions

The 3 Idiots Bollywood film is a great film to motivate students. It has come up with an excellent message for university students. Three Idiots film teaches us to be more creative rather than only memorizing books. Every student should watch this film to understand better how to study well at University without remembering books.

The 3 Idiots film will help differentiate between the students who like to memorize only without understanding and those who want to understand topics rather than memorize. The audience will get a clear concept of the duties and responsibilities of a successful student. I immensely enjoyed this film for its fantastic story, casting, dialogue, and music.

Strengths of the 3 Idiots Film

This film teaches us that we should focus on what we like to do and stop doing what people suggest doing us, just like Farhan. From a personal or professional perspective, calm and motivate yourself when you face difficulties or critical situations. It results in positive things in our lives. We should not be just confined to bookish Knowledge. Only getting higher ranks won’t help you succeed, but you will surely succeed if you get excellent at your work.

Don't run behind the success; achieve excellence first; the success will automatically come looking for you. Be always creative in your answers, work, & things, which helps you become more capable of your own life.

Believing in our own is very important. If you want to achieve something, you must think you can fully achieve it. It will surely get easier to achieve your goal. If you're going to succeed, you can't just race with others; instead, you will have to think more advanced than them, more significantly, and more efficiently.

Based on the 348,000 responses in IMBD,  the 3 Idiots film obtained a rating of 8.4/10.

Weaknesses of the 3 Idiots Film

This film has many pranking scenes, such as pranking teachers and mocking professors. Moreover, the prank with Chatur was too terrible; it could tear up any student’s self-confidence and push them towards depression. There are a few scenes where students drink alcohol, which badly impacts students' psychology and questions the engineering college system. Students die of suicide instead of solving problems.

Additionally, in this film, the audience can see the delivery of a baby with a suction pipe, giving exams after times up, and just fleeing quickly by mixing their papers with other papers.

We think the filmmakers haven't done enough research on baby delivery. Otherwise, they would have known that the placenta was also delivered after the baby's delivery. Doctors can find such mistakes in the film.

The leading role in this film is Aamir Khan, who did not struggle enough to achieve success. But it is a fact that struggle and handwork are inevitable for success.

Additionally, the writer Chetan Bhagat claimed that the story of the 3 Idiots film was taken from his novel "Five Point Someone." This controversy came up just after the movie. However, Rajkumar Hirani explained that he had taken permission from Chetan Bhagat while writing the script.

3 Idiots Film Evaluation with Evidence

Based on the evidence, it is safe to say that this is one of the most successful films in Bollywood history. The 3 Idiots film earned around US$90 million, making it the highest-grossing Bollywood film. Additionally, the film has won six Filmfare Awards, including Best Film, and three National Film Awards. It has won overseas awards, such as Japan's Videoyasan Awards Grand Prize. Further, the 3 Idiots film has been nominated for Best Outstanding Foreign Language Film at the Japan Academy Awards and Best Foreign Film at China's Beijing International Film Festival. The 3 Idiot film was a hit in China, and they were even interested in remaking it.

 Lessons from the 3 Idiots Film

Raju: I have learned to stand up on my feet after breaking my legs.

Rancho: Follow your passion. Don't study something you know you are not interested in or are bad at.

Rancho: Learning is not memorizing the exact words from the textbook. Learning means understanding the topic and describing it in your own words with your ideas.

Recommendations to Watch 3 Idiots Film

I want to recommend people to watch this motivational film. Firstly, It is a family-friendly film. So, all family members, from the eldest to the youngest, can sit together to watch this film. There is no intimate sexual scene except a kissing scene. In addition, this film story is appropriate to student life so that students will enjoy it very much. Students can get motivation from this film to study well. It is a motivational film and gives positive thoughts to acquire success in life.

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