SMCR Model of Communication- Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example Situation. Berlo’s Model of Communication.
SMCR Model of Communication
SMCR communication model refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver formed communication theory developed by David Berlo in 1960. In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR communication model with four elements: Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver, which are essential elements of any communication process. Therefore, the SMCR communication model is known as Berlo’s Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model. Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective. SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the primary communication process.
There are three types of communication models: linear, interactive, and transactional communication models. The SMCR communication model refers to the one-way communication system. So, the SMCR model is a linear model of communication where feedback is absent.
Models of Communication
Berlo’s Model of Communication Example
Watching television news is a real-life example of David Barlo’s SMCR communication model. It is also known as Berlo’s model of communication example situation. The four essential elements of Barlo’s model are the source, message, channel, and Receiver. Firstly, the news presenter is the source of the news who disseminates the information. The report is the message, and television is the channel. Finally, the audiences are the receivers of the message who watch the television. In this context, the audience cannot provide feedback. It is also a one-way communication process where the feedback is not presented. Similarly, reading newspapers is another example of Barlo’s model of communication. Print and broadcast journalism mostly relates to one-way communication.
However, digital journalism, including social media-based citizen journalism and blogging, generates two-way communication, also known as the transactional communication model. The audience can comment to express their opinion.
For example, you watch television, read books, newspapers, and magazines, and hear an announcement.
Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication
The Four Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication are:
The source means the message’s sender who initiates the communication process by sending information to the Receiver. David Berlo describes five factors related to the source: Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.
Communication skills refer to the ability to speak, read, write, and listen effectively. It also indicates the ability to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. Communication will be more effective if the senders and receivers both have excellent communication skills. The most common nonverbal communication examples are eye contact, facial expression, body language, gesture, posture, and so more. The communication skill of the source or sender increases the effectiveness of the communication process.
Attitude is the psychological factor of the sender and Receiver that affects the meaning of the message. It is also an established perception of a person in which they think or feel about something. Thus, the meaning of the message depends on the source’s attitude and the Receiver.
Knowledge indicates the level of actual information, familiarity, and experience on the discussion topic. Actually, the discussion topic is the message of the communication process. Therefore, the communicator feels comfortable discussing if the topic is familiar to them. However, knowledge does not imply the educational qualification or degrees of the sender or receiver.
For example, a football player will be more interested in talking about football than cricket. On the other hand, a cricket player will surely feel comfortable discussing a cricket game. Here, knowledge indicates familiarity with the subject of the discussion topic or message.
Social systems refer to the values, beliefs, behaviors, rules and regulations, locations, and religions. These factors influence the method of the communication process as well as the meaning of the message.
For example, the speaker delivers an anti-America message in the American parliament election campaign. It is considerably sure that the audience will not receive and listen to his message attentively. It is an example of a location factor that is also part of the social system.
Culture refers to the social background of the Sender and Receiver. The meaning of the same message might be identical when people from different cultures interpret it. It is a significant factor from the perspective of nonverbal communication cues.
For example, exchanging “Salam” greetings among men and women is widespread in the Muslim community. Salam conveys the greeting message in the Muslim community; however, handshaking is another activity that also exchanges the same mean. On the other hand, handshaking is a standard greeting among men and women in Western culture.
The message is the primary substance conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the Receiver. David Berlo proposed another five factors related to the message: Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code.
Content refers to the entire body of the message from beginning to end. It is essential information for the discussion. Content is the whole script of the conversation.
For example, the lecturer is teaching students about noise in communication. So, the full speech about communication noise is the content of the message.
Elements refer to nonverbal communication cues such as facial expression, eye contact, gesture, posture, and body movement. It makes the conversation more effective and productive. So, the communication might get boring without elements.
For example, the lecturer raises five fingers when mentioning the five basic noises in the communication process.
Treatment refers to the communication way in which the message is conveyed to the audience. The communication way affects the communication system. It represents the message packaging. The examples of treatment in communication are delivering messages formally and casually.
For example, the teachers speak formally when delivering speeches in the classroom. However, the lecturer talks very casually when meeting students outside of class.
The structure of the message describes the arrangement of the information. The effectiveness of the message depends on the message structure.
For example, the lecturer talks about the definition, types, and examples of communication noise. The students perceive the message clearly for its good arrangement.
Code in the message refers to the form of message transmitting. The examples of the code are text, audio, video, visual, and so more.
For example, the teacher is speaking in front of the students; hence, the code of the message is audio.
Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from sender to Receiver. There are many types of channels in communication, such as radio, newspapers, TV, phone call, and social media. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the communication channel: hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. These five channels are a crucial part of the human communication process.
For example, the face to face class is more effective than an online class. The students can see the lecturer physically and hear the lecture. Nowadays, many institutes conduct virtual classes through premium. The channels denote the physical and virtual communication way to convey messages.
David Berlo mentions only five human senses as the communication channel, such as Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting.
People receive messages through listening. It is the most significant channel in the communication process. For example, students hear lectures in the classroom.
People accept messages through seeing. It is one of the crucial channels in nonverbal communication. People take less than one second to judge others by seeing their appearance. The audiences form a conception of the speaker based on body movement, facial expression, eye contact, and gesture. A proverb says that people can lie, but eyes never lie. It means people believe what they see more than what they hear.
For example, a lecturer asks students about their final exam. The student reply that it was an excellent exam; however, the student looks very worried while interacting with the lecturer. So, the lecturer does not believe the statement due to seeing the worried face. Watching television is another example of seeing channels in communication.
Touch refers to an effective nonverbal communication channel that conveys messages through touching. It is also known as Haptics in Nonverbal Communication. The most common example of touching channels in communication is holding hands, hugging, tickling, and kissing. These touching styles represent different messages.
Smelling is another channel of the intrapersonal communication process. The intrapersonal communication process means communicating with yourself. It is also known as olfactics nonverbal communication. People judge others based on the Fragrance they have used. A good smell creates a positive attitude toward the person. The perspiration odors form a negative perception of the person.
For example, people smell flowers and fragrances to identify whether the flavor is good or bad.
Tasting refers to nonverbal communication channels through tasting something. For example, people test food to identify its deliciousness.
Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. David Berlo adds the same factors of the sources to the Receiver, such as Communication skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture, to the Receiver. Communication gets more effective when senders and receivers have similar skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Communication among people from the same culture and social system reduces communication noise during the interaction.
Advantages and Disadvantages of SMCR Model
Importance of the Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model
Berlo’s communication model explains the communication system with four primary and 15 sub-components. It shows a giant diagram to describe the process thoroughly.
The source or sender and receiver contain similar components. This model articulates that the sender and receiver convey and receive messages simultaneously. It indicates interactive communication even though it is a linear communication model.
Disadvantages of the Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model
David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication is the linear communication model; therefore, feedback is absent. Hence, the SMCR model can’t explain the transactional communication processes like speaking over a smartphone.
Additionally, it illustrates a complex communication model that is difficult to understand.
Moreover, Berlo’s SMCR communication model avoids noise, a significant communication element. It excludes another communication element- context. It is impossible to describe the communication process without noise and context.
It is one of the significant linear communication models that describe the communication process through multiple elements, including Sender, Message, Channel, and Receiver.