Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model Pros & Cons

Tuckman’s theory of communication, Pros & Cons of Tuckman’s  Theory. Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model.

Tuckman’s Model or Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory of communication consists of 5 states including forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. It is also known as Tuckman’s model or 5 stages of group development theory or Tuckman’s team development model.

Bruce Tuckman introduced his group and team development model in 1965. In the 1970s, he added the fifth stage adjourning to his four stages of group development model. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen added the fifth and final stage into Tuckman’s model. The name of the fifth stage is Adjourning which represents the happiness of achieving the interdependent group goal. Therefore, it is known as Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model.

According to Tuckman’s model, Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. A perfect theory to describe how to group and team members adjust and adapt in a group gradually.

 

Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.

Although, in 1965 Tuckman proposed a four-stage of group development model but later he added the fifth stage called adjourning. Tuckman’s model assists group members to overcome the obstacles in the group and adjust in the group gradually.  Therefore, it is known as a group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group development model consists of five stages that facilitate group formation and development, for example, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

1. Forming Stage:(Orientation)

Forming is the first stage of Tuckman’s 5 stages of group development model.

  • Members carefully explore both personal and group goals.
  • Tentatively feel uncomfortable about working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues try to understand and test personal relationships.
  • Orient itself to itself.

Primary Tension of Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development Model

  • Social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting-acquainted stage in a new group
  • To be overly polite with one another
  • Members don’t interrupt one another
  • Often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions also talk less and provide little in the way of content.

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Be positive and energetic so that other members build positive attitudes toward you.
  • Smile and Laugh at others
  • Nod in agreement and Exhibit enthusiasm, because it is a very useful non-verbal cue to hold effective interactions.
  • Be patient and open-minded knowing that certainly, the primary tension will decrease with time.
  • Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting so you can help the group focus on its task.
2. Storming Stage: (Power Struggle)

Storming Stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
  • Group members become argumentative also emotional.
  • The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership.
  • Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition and conflict
  • Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing with one another.

Secondary Tension of Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development

  • Frustrations and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group.
  • Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence.
  • High level of energy and agitation
  • The group is noisier, more dynamic, and physically active
  • Members speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking at the same time.
  • Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats
  • Everyone is alert and listening intently.
How to Solve the Tension?
  • Making jokes.
  • Work outside the group setting to discuss the personal difficulties and anxieties of group members.
3. Norming Stage: (Cooperation)

Norming Stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Actually, members start learning to work as a cohesive team and task-oriented.
  • Start developing “rules of engagement”.
  • Feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open.
  • Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge.
4. Performing Stage: (Synergy)

Performing Stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Members are fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
  • Adjust and adapt, Members start solving critical problems.
  • Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high.
  • Disagreements do occur, but members usually resolved intelligently and amicably.
  • “Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; rather, the members are jovial, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.
5. Adjourning Stage (Closure)

Adjourning Stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband. It also represents whether the group members will work together or form a new group.
  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
  • Finally, they are happy for what they have achieved but feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model
Pros and Cons of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development

Advantages of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Firstly, this model clarifies the specific stages of any group and team for instance forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  • In addition to that, this model helps to learn more about primary tension and secondary tension also how to solve them.
  • Furthermore. It strengthens the relationship among group members and motivates them to be productive.
  • Finally, Tuckman’s group developing model shows the perfect way of solving group uncertainty issues.

Disadvantages and Limitation of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Model

  • Tuckman’s Theory consists of five important stages that really difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions at every stage to maintain effective communication and a good relationship with group members.
  • Additionally, there is no specific solution that can solve all conflicts in group communication although suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts.
  • Furthermore, it did not mention what would have happened if the storming stage had not been ended.
  • Finally,  this model has been failed to discuss why the group change over time.
Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, January 30). Tuckman’s Model Five Stages of Group or Team Development Theory. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/tuckmans-model-five-stages-of-group-and-team-development-theory/

Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process

Communication Elements, the 9 Elements of Communication are Context, Sender, Encoder,  Messages, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise or Barrier. Additionally, Definition and Examples of the 9 Elements or Components of Communication.

Communication Elements

Elements of communication refer to essential tools of communication on which the communication process is conducted. Communication elements initiate and conduct the full process of sharing information between the sender and receiver. Therefore, elements of communication are very important and interconnected parts of the communication process. The 9 elements of communication (Context, Sender, Encoder,  Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise) are necessary tools or components to conduct an effective communication between sender and receiver.

Communication Process

The communication process refers to the way of sharing information verbally or non-verbally between the sender and receiver. Verbal communication means communication through spoken words. Nonverbal communication refers to nonverbal communication cues such as tone of voice, facial expression, movement, eye contact, body language, etc. Communication is the process of conveying the message via written text, speech, signals, visuals, or behavior. It also a process of exchanging opinions and imparting knowledge between speaker and audience through elements of communication.

The 9 Elements of Communication

 The 9 basic elements of the communication process are;

  1. Context
  2. Sender
  3. Encoder
  4. Message
  5. Channel
  6. Decoder
  7. Receiver
  8. Feedback
  9. Noise
Communication elements, 9 elements of communication process are Context, Sender, Receiver, Encoder, Decoder, Channel, Message, Noise, Feedback. 9 elements of communication process with examples. Process of communication. Elements or components of communication process.
Figure 1: The 9 Elements of Communication Process
 Examples of 9 Elements of Communication

Ela was talking to her husband on a smartphone and she requested her husband to deposit $100 for the electricity bill. At the same time, her son was watching a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high. Therefore, her husband could not understand exactly how much needs to pay for the electricity bill. So, she repeated the same words to confirm him. Consequently, her husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill, and she replied that today is the last date to pay the electricity bill without penalty. In the meantime, she showed her angry face to her son to reduce TV volume. Instantly, her son reduced the volume.

Based on the example, the context is social context, Ela is the sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. In similar, her husband is also a sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Turning the thought into the message is the act of encoding. In contrast, transferring the message into thought is the process of decoding. The smartphone is the medium or channel of the communication process. TV volume is the environmental noise that bars the communication process.

1. Communication Element- Context

Firstly, context is the prime element of every communication process. Context represents the environment in which communication happens or takes place. This context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues. This is an example of a social context that influences communication.

Example of context in communication

For example, Ela is talking to her husband informally, so she feels very comfortable. Therefore, the social-context has been designed from this communication process. The context would be physical-context if they communicate face to face.

2. Communication Element- Sender/ Source

A sender is a person who sends the message to the receiver. The sender is also known as the encoder of the message. The sender is the initiator of the communication process who starts the procedure via sending a message or information. A sender makes and uses symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. A sender is a speaker or writer or a person who convey the information with the intention of sharing opinion, ideas, and message.

Example of Sender in communication

For example, Ela is the sender and encoder who sends messages to communicate with her husband. The sender is the person who sends the message to communicate with others. So, Ela is the sender also an element of the communication process.

3. Communication Element- Encoding

Encoding is the process of transforming abstract opinions and ideas into symbols such as words, pictures, signs, and marks. A symbol might represent or indicate opinions, ideas, and actions. In contrast, decoding is the process of transforming the symbol into opinion or thought. Literally,  encoding is the process of transformation of the subject into symbols. The process of encoding is connected to the sender and receiver. The message of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.

Example of encoding in communication

For example, Ela has converted his thought into words to convey the message to her husband that is called encoding. Here, converting the thought into words is the process of encoding. Words are serving as the spoken communication symbol. She called her husband and uttered some words to share an opinion as well as send the message.

4. Communication Element- Message/ Information

The message seems like a key element of any communication process. Any communication might happen to convey the message that is also known as the process of sharing ideas, opinions, thoughts, and information. Always, the sender wants to convey the message to communicate with the receiver. So, senders need to ensure that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable. Messages may convey through verbal and nonverbal cues. Verbal cues are the spoken language of the speaker, for instance, spoken words. On the other hand, nonverbal communication cues are facial expression, eye contact, physical appearance, posture, gesture, etc.

Example of Message in communication

For example, Ela was speaking to convey the message that indicates verbal communication.  She also showed her angry face to her son to reduce the volume of TV that is called non-verbal communication.

5. Communication Element- Channel/ Medium

Channel is the way of transmitting the message. It is also known as a medium in communication that conveys the message from sender to receiver. In the face to face communication, the sender’s senses, for example, hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and tasting are the channel of transferring the information. On the other hand, organizations use Television, Newspapers, Radio as a channel to disseminate information. People use the computer and mobile phone to communicate with a person who lives far away from the sender. For instance, a small group of people chooses a written medium to convey the message, while people choose an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

Example of Channel or Medium in communication

For example, Ela has transmitted the message through a smartphone so the smartphone is the channel of the communication process. She uses technology to convey messages therefore it is called mediated communication.

6. Communication Element- Decoding

Decoding is the process of translation of an encoded symbol into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. In this process, the receiver converts the symbols into thoughts received from the sender.  Decoding is the opposite process of encoding to get the meaning of the message.

Example of Decoding in communication

For example, Ela has transformed his thought into words to convey the message to her husband that is called encoding. Whereas, her husband converts those words into thought to understand the message that is the process of decoding.

7. Communication Element- Receiver/ Audience

A receiver or decoder is a person for whom the message is targeted in contrast to the sender. Therefore, the receiver is the audience of the communication process. The sender surely sends a message aimed at the receiver. Receivers can be one person or a group of people or a big amount of population. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of the recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.

Example of Receiver in communication

For example, Ela has sent the message targeted at her husband to whom she wants to communicate. Hence, her husband is the receiver in this context of the communication.

8. Communication Element- Feedback / Response

Feedback is one of the main elements of the effective communication process as it allows the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It also helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of the message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.).  It may take written form also in the form of memos, reports, etc.

Example of Feedback in communication

Feedback differentiates the linear and transitional model of communication. The model of communication is linear if the author does not add feedback to the model, for example, Lasswell’s Model of Communication. On the other hand, the communication model will be identified as interactive and transitional if the feedback is presented, for example, the Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication.

For example, Ela’s husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill.

9. Communication Element-Noise/ Barrier

Finally, Noise is a communication barrier or distraction to effective communication. Noise in communication is any type of barrier that obstacles the effectiveness of the communication process. Actually, communication noises exist in all types of the communication process such as noise in face-to-face communication, noise in group communication, noise in mediated communication, etc. Communication will be more effective and interactive if there is no noise. Actually, noise is an unnecessary element in communication that distracts receivers to receive the message.

Example of Noise in communication

For example, Ela’s son was watching a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high when she was talking to her husband. The sound of the cartoon video bars Ela to listen to her husband’s speech so it is an example of a communication barrier or communication noise or communication distraction.

In conclusion, these 9 important elements (context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise) are the essential component of the basic communication process. The communication process might get faulty without any of these elements except noise.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, February 3). Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/communication-elements-9-components-of-basic-communication-process/

M M Kobiruzzaman on ResearchGate

Reference
Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Communication: The process, barriers, and improving effectiveness. Schooling1(1), 1-10.