Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay PDF. Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media Essay IELTS. Advantages of Social Media Essay. Disadvantages of Social Media Essay. Also, Social Media Benefits and Drawbacks Essay.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

The essay on social media advantages and disadvantages describes social media platforms’ positive and adverse impacts. The most significant parts of an ideal essay are the introduction, body, and conclusion, and the additional elements are thesis statements, transitional verbs, and examples.

The essay on the advantages and disadvantages of social media includes the introduction, thesis statement, advantages, disadvantages, and conclusion. Nowadays, social media have become a widespread phenomenon. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of social media essays have become a crucial topic for students, educators, and academicians. Many students focus on social media essays to obtain excellent results in the IELTS exam. Additionally, the school, college, and university lecturers set this topic for the assignment and exam questions. The author demonstrates examples of social media’s advantages and disadvantages essay.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Introduction

Social media are the most significant blessing of technology in the modern era. Social media are mainly Internet-based tools and applications that people use for communicating, entertaining, and sharing information. The most common social media platforms are Facebook, TikTok, WhatsApp, Viber, Instagram, WeChat, Pinterest, Linked In, VK, etc. The total number of social media users is around 3.0 billion worldwide. Facebook has become one of the most famous social media that has managed to gain 2.30 billion monthly active users. It becomes a double-edged sword due to its positive and negative impact on society. The author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of social media platforms in society.

Advantages of Social Media

The advantages of social media are maintaining communication, sharing knowledge, and enhancing business.

Firstly, social media ease the communication system that contributes to building relationships. Nowadays, more than 90 percent of teenagers are using smartphones, and in the meantime, 45 percent of them surf the internet every day. For example, students utilize social media networking sites to conduct virtual meetings and classes. So, social networking sites benefit people in maintaining communication globally.

Additionally, Social media have become the most convenient tool for imparting and sharing knowledge. People can easily perceive how difficult educational life would be without using social networking platforms.  Every student acknowledges that Google has become the best lecturer for asking questions and seeking knowledge from the Google search engine. For example, educators adopt Google meet and webinar meeting platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Zoom meeting, Google Meet, etc. So, social media are the best grace of technologies from the perspective of sharing knowledge and expertise.

Furthermore, social media have a tremendous positive impact on the company from the viewpoint of marketing policy. Social media help organizations communicate with potential customers virtually. For example, the organization utilizes its official social media pages for corporate branding, product branding, social media marketing, paid marketing, website traffic enhancement, promotion, etc. In sum, selling products and services online has been easier for the blessing of social media.

People benefit from several viewpoints when using social media, such as education, communication, workplace, marketing, entertainment, etc.

Disadvantages of Social Media

On the other hand, the most critical disadvantages of social media are using them for cyberbullying, hacking, and addiction.

Firstly, teenagers utilize social media platforms to bully others, also known as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to harassing someone by sharing personal information on social networking sites. A study shows that around 50% of teenagers were bullied for cyberbullying in Bangladesh until 2016. In 2016, an American teenager named Megan Taylor Meier committed suicide for cyberbullying. For example, most teenagers get bullied on Instagram following Facebook, Snapchat, and YouTube.

Hacking is another negative consequence of using social media on society. Many people preserve their personal information, including photos, ID cards, and passports, on social networking sites. Hackers can hack this personal information and share them on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. Sometimes, they demand money from victims committing not disclosing their private photos. After all, it triggers victims to commit suicide; hence, it is another important negative consequence of social media platforms.

Moreover, social media’s most alarming negative impact on society is addiction. A statistic revealed that around 220 million people are now addicted to social media directly or indirectly. For example, many teenagers play games on social media sites instead of doing their daily tasks properly.

Conclusions

In short, Social media have both positive and negative impacts on individuals and companies. People are getting benefits when using social media to maintain communication, share knowledge, and enhance business. In contrast, some crimes are happening due to social media, such as cyberbullying and hacking. A significant number of teenagers are addicted to social media, which bars them from maintaining a healthy life. However, people can make social media a blessing tool by preventing negative societal impacts.

Advantages of Social Media Essay

Social media advantages essay discusses the benefits of social media sites in human life. It also includes the introduction, body, and conclusion. An example of a social media essay has been outlined.

Introduction

Have you ever wondered that half of the 7.7 billion people worldwide are using social media platforms? Social media refer to the internet-based networking system that eases human communication through computers, smartphones, and tablets. Around 3.8 billion people use social media, yet Facebook achieved around 2.74 billion active monthly users worldwide in 2021. Today I would like to talk to you about the positive role of social media in society. Nevertheless, social media have both positive and negative impacts on society. Regardless of the critics, the advantages of social media are practicing citizen journalism, maintaining emergency communication, and conducting a virtual education system.

Advantages of Social Media

Firstly, citizen journalism plays a significant role in creating social awareness and shaping public opinion. Citizen journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing information on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, etc. Social media allow citizen journalists to spread information quickly compared to traditional media. A study shows that around 45% of Americans consume news and information from social media platforms. For example, citizen journalists play a crucial role in the covid-19 pandemic by sharing the coronavirus death toll on Facebook every day.

Secondly, social media platforms have become the most convenient networking sites for emergency communication. The disaster management authority utilizes social media pages to conduct agency to community communication. Social media can spread any news quickly among a considerable number of people in the community. For example, in 2020, WHO, UN, UNESCO, and UNICEF disseminated the updated information on their social media pages regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media sites are undoubtedly effective tools for quick communication in emergency periods.

Finally, educators, students, and academicians currently utilize social networking sites to conduct virtual classes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many educational institutes conducted and regulated online courses through virtual meeting minutes, including Google Meet, Zoom meeting, and WhatsApp. As a result, students organize virtual meetings to complete group discussions and submit online meeting minutes. A study shows that social media enhance students’ communication skills; therefore, they perform better than average students who are not active on social networking platforms. So, it is another crucial benefit of social media in conducting a virtual education system.

Conclusion

In sum, social media are a blessing invention of technology in the 21st century, and it contributes a lot to information and communication technology (ICT). The three significant advantages of social media are practicing citizen journalism on social media, maintaining emergency communication, and conducting a virtual education system. Based on these positive social media roles, it is safe to say that social media benefit people immensely.

Disadvantages of Social Media Essay

The social media disadvantages essay discusses the adverse consequences of social media sites in human life. The article on social media’s disadvantages includes the introduction, thesis statement, body, and conclusion.

Introduction

Social media have brought a significant change in the communication sector.   Social media are also known as the new media; these have become an indispensable part of the modern lifestyle. According to the statistic report, more than 800 social media platforms globally. Nowadays, people can not imagine a day without using social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, and TikTok. However, it has both positive and adverse impacts on society. Apart from the positive consequences, social media’s most typical adverse effects on society are spreading fake news, negative reviews on business, and addictions.

Firstly, People opt-in to social media sites to spread fake and fabricated information for its availability. Many citizen journalists utilize these sites to disseminate misleading political issues. For example, Twitter banned  President Donald Trump’s account due to posting misleading information.

Secondly, social media can destroy the business due to the negative review from customers on social media. It also creates high customer expectations and a reduction in employee productivity. Study shows that a negative review on social media sites can diminish hundred positive comments.

Finally, Nowadays, Netizens are incredibly keen on social media, and they are spending most of their time here instead of traditional media. People are highly addicted to social media; therefore, they experience physical and mental illnesses.

Conclusion

Social media have both positive and negative consequences on society. Nobody can deny the blessing of social media to make our civil life more accessible from communication with each other beyond the country’s boundaries. The adverse consequences of social media are spreading fake news, negative reviews on business, and addictions. The government and policymakers should come up with a solution to the problem.

Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media

The essay on the advantages and disadvantages of social media outlines how to write a body paragraph of an essay with APA citation. The thesis statement and body paragraph of the essay on social media advantages and disadvantages have been illustrated here.

Thesis Statement

Social media help us communicate with each other, but it is also beneficial for education & marketing purposes.

Body Paragraphs 

First of all, social media have a great positive impact on the educational sector, and it assists students to nourish their knowledge with the teaching aids that are available online. Faizi, Afia, and Chiheb (2013) mentioned that students who are actively involved in social media could earn more knowledge easily in a better way. They also stated that social media had become a great platform that allows students to work in a group on projects and also enhance their individual knowledge capacity. In addition, social media allow everyone to access vast knowledge through various educational websites, knowledge-sharing portals, and online classes.

Greenhow and Lewin (2016) proposed that social media tools have several educational advantages for both the students and the teachers. They also said that it provides opportunities for further learning for people from all walks of life who can access the internet. In essence, it is clear that social media positively impacts the educational sector.

Secondly, social media are the biggest platforms for different brands and organizations to be used for marketing purposes. Many recognized brands use social media to promote their products and service to their targeted audiences. Barefoot and Szabo (2010) explain that social media marketing can be defined as the use of different social media platforms to be used in promoting an organization and its products to the targeted audience.  Furthermore, celebrities all over the world use social media to connect with their fans and followers, and they also used to do their publicity work. Wright (2015) claimed that celebrities also use social media channels to keep a good reputation and online presence. Additionally, the main intention behind this is to increase the number of fans and followers. In short, social media play a great role in the corporate and personal branding sectors.

References:

Barefoot, D., & Szabo, J. (2009). Friends with benefits: A social media marketing handbook. No Starch Press.

Faizi, R., El Afia, A., & Chiheb, R. (2013). Exploring the potential benefits of using social media in education. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP)3(4), 50-53.

Greenhow, C., & Lewin, C. (2016). Social media and education: Reconceptualizing the boundaries of formal and informal learning. Learning, media, and technology41(1), 6-30.

Wright, K. (2015). Social Media and Celebrities: The Benefits of a Social Media Presence.

 

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory. Also, Definition and Examples of Geert Hofstede Six Cultural Dimensions.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Hofstede’s cultural dimension was developed in 1980 by Dutch management researcher Geert Hofstede. It is also known as Hofstede’s model and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions refer to the conceptual framework that identifies the differences in culture globally.  It shows a systematic process to compare the nations based on beliefs, values, behaviors, and attitudes. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory shows the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members. It also shows how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.

Initially, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory has only four dimensions: power distance index, individualism vs collectivism, masculine vs feminine, and uncertainty avoidance index. In 1988, Michael Harris Bond added the 5th dimension, “Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation”, to Hofestede’s model.  Similarly, in 2010, Michael Minkov described and added the 6th dimension named indulgence vs restraint to Geert Hofstede’s theory. Therefore, it is also known as Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture that evaluates and represents cultural differences globally.

This model generates rank for each country through contained scores on a specific dimension. Each dimension of the Hofstede model is different from other dimensions for its unique factor analysis. Hence, it is one of the critical theories to understand the cultural differences prevalent across the country. Cultural difference creates cultural conflict that is also known as the communication noise barrier.

Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions

Geert Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions are Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity Vs Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Long Vs Short Term Orientation, and Indulgence Vs Restraint. This cultural dimensions theory is beneficial to understand and change the work attitude of the organization, group, team members, and so on. It also assists the negotiators to understand the opposite party during international negotiation. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are a significant model of communication that contributes to international and cross-culture communication.

Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions are:

  1. Power Distance Index (PDI)
  2. Individualism Vs Collectivism
  3. Masculinity Vs Femininity
  4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
  5. Long Vs Short Term Orientation
  6. Indulgence Vs Restraint
Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions- Geert Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions Theory
Geert Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions

1. Power Distance Index(PDI)

(Extent of Inequality and Power Distributed in Society)

The power distance index refers to the degree to which society members accept the distance of power and authority. It is a crucial element of Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions that assess the inequality (more versus less) among members of society. Additionally, it has a significant impact on international business negotiation. The power distance index differs into high power and low power distance index.

High Power Distance

The high power distance refers to a society where less powerful people easily accept the unequal power distribution in the community. It means the acceptance of the inequity between high- and low-status members of society. People with High PDI expect that power will be distributed in society unequally, so they do not complain about inequality. It has become a tradition that they convey from generation to generation. They value traditional norms and social rules. Therefore, people in high power distance countries accept the inequity in organizations smoothly.

Examples of High Power Distance Countries

Bangladesh, China, India, Singapore, Malaysia, and Arab countries have very high power distance scores; therefore, these countries are examples of high PDI in 2022. For example, Bangladesh and China ranked high power distance countries with scores of 80. Additionally, India scores 77, and Singapore scores 74 in the power distance dimension. People from the following countries easily accept the inequalities between people with high and low power status. People in these countries do not complain; instead, they admit it as a social order.

Hofstede country comparison website: www.hofstede-insights.com. Anyone can compare the country’s culture through the following link.

Example of High Power Distance Countries- High Power Distance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Low Power Distance

Low power distance refers to a culture where less powerful people do not accept unequal power distribution in society easily. It means the acceptance of equity and equality between high- and low-status members of society. The member of the community practice fairness and interdependence activities in society. People in a low PDI society are pragmatic; hence, they are less orientated to traditional values. They also complain about the subsisting inequity between high- and low-status members in communities and organizations.

Examples of Low Power Distance Countries

Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom are examples of low power distance countries in 2022. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Austria has achieved the lowest PDI country with 11, following Israel with 13, Denmark with 18, New Zealand with 22, Norway with 31, Germany with 35, and the United Kingdom with 35. People from these countries do not accept the inequity between high and low-influential people in society, community, and organization. They raise their voices against injustice and discrimination in society.

Example of Low Power Distance Index Countries in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

 

Differences Between High and Low Power Distance Culture
High Power Distance Culture
Low Power Distance Culture
People certainly accept unequal power distribution in society. In contrast, people complain about unequal power distribution.
Junior people respect the senior people in society and seniors expect obedience Senior and junior people respect each other equally.
Discrimination is prevalent in every sector of the country; for example, social, government, and non-government organizations. On the other hand, people raise their voices against discrimination.
The political leader and organizational boss are autocratic people. The political leader and organizational boss are democratic people.
For example, high power distance cultures exist in Bangladesh, China, India, Singapore, Malaysia, and Arab countries. For example, low power distance cultures exist in Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

2. Individualism Vs Collectivism

(Prefer To Work Independently or Interdependently)

Individualism and collectivism are the most significant cultural dimensions that separate the society where people prefer to work personally or interdependently. According to Hofstede’s model, a high score in the country indicates individualistic culture. On the other hand, the low score indicates collectivistic culture. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory encourages collectivistic culture; so, the members of an individualistic society should understand that they are part of a larger group. Therefore, they should pay all-out efforts to achieve a shared goal. Tuckman’s theory of communication discusses more how to work together in a group to achieve common goals.

Individualism

Individualism refers to the individualistic culture of society where people prefer to work separately and seek freedom in the workplace. Individualistic members like to work alone and seek credit for their work. In this culture, task prevails over the relationship in the workplace. People in individualistic cultures do not want to work in groups, so they set independent goals and appreciate freedom. Thus, they are assertive, self-reliant, competitive, and value individual achievement.

Individualistic Countries Examples

Usually, individualist cultures are prevalent in western countries. For example, the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Ireland are individualistic countries. According to Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture, the  United States scores 91, following Australia with 90, the United Kingdom with 89, Canada with 80, Netherlands with 80, New Zealand with 79, and Ireland with 70. Therefore, people from these countries prefer to work alone and foster independent achievement.

Individualistic Countries Examples

Collectivism

Collectivism refers to the collectivistic culture of society where people prefer to work together and foster interdependent achievement. Collectivist members like to work in groups and try to help each other. They prefer to work in groups instead of working alone. In this culture, relationship prevails over task in the business setting. They also emphasize group identity and group success. Hence, they are cooperative, obedient, and self-sacrificing. The family member maintains strong relationships with members in collectivism. On the other hand, family members do not focus on maintaining strong relationships in an individualistic society.

Collectivistic Countries Examples

Collectivist cultures are common in Asian and Latin American countries. Guatemala, Ecuador,  Venezuela, Indonesia, Pakistan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Bangladesh, and Malaysia are considered the most collectivistic nations globally. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, a low score in this dimension indicates a collectivistic society. For example, Guatemala has ranked the most collectivistic country in the world with a score of 06, following Ecuador with 08, Venezuela with 12, Indonesia with 14, Pakistan with 14, Taiwan with 17, South Korea with 18, China with 20, Bangladesh with 20, and Malaysia with 26. So, people from these countries prefer to work in groups and intend to achieve shared goals.

Collectivistic Countries Examples

Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Masculinity vs Femininity

Differences Between Individualistic and Collectivistic Culture

Individualistic Culture
Collectivistic Culture
Firstly, People are intended to work alone. In contrast, people are intended to work in a group or team.
Additionally, people foster personal achievement. People foster group achievement.
In this culture, the member takes responsibility only for the immediate family, including the wife and children. On the other hand, in a collectivistic society, the member takes responsibility for the extended family, including parents and grandparents.
In the workplace, employees are supposed to focus on personal tasks, and they compete with each other for positions. In contrast, employees are supposed to share the workload.
Tasks control the relationship However, relationship prevails over tasks.
Government plays a small role in society. The government certainly plays the most critical role in society.
Above all, people are assertive, self-reliant, self-interest, competitive, and independent. Whereas, People are obedient, self-sacrificing, cooperative, and interdependent.
I- Consciousness We- Consciousness
For example, individualistic cultures are prevalent in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Ireland are For example, collectivistic cultures are prevalent in Guatemala, Ecuador,  Venezuela, Indonesia, Pakistan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Bangladesh, and Malaysia.

3. Masculinity Vs Femininity

(Assertiveness and Nurture Society)

Masculinity versus femininity is another dimension of Hofstede’s theory that differentiates society based on gender roles and traits. The high score of the dimension refers to the masculine culture driven by competition and material success. On the other hand, the low score indicates a feminine society driven by the quality of life.

In business circumstances, masculinity versus femininity refers to as “tough versus tender” cultures.

Masculinity

Masculinity pertains to traits associated with assertiveness culture in society. According to Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, men focus on personal tasks and material success in masculine culture. Gender roles are differentiated and, the role of men and women overlap less than in feminine society. The men are more assertive, decisive, dominant, and focused on success. On the other hand, women are more humble, loving, and focused on quality of life. In this society, men concentrate on assertiveness, heroism, and performance. The men of these societies are more competitive than feminine societies. Children in China learn the importance of personal achievement since childhood. So, they compete with each other for self-success.

In business settings, masculinity refers to the rough culture in the organization. The Boss does less discussion with employees to a make- decisions.

Examples of Masculine Countries

Slovakia, Japan, Hungary, Austria, Venezuela, Italy, Mexico, and China are considered masculine countries for their high score in this dimension. For example, Slovakia scores 100, following Japan(95), Hungary(88), Austria (79), Venezuela (73), Italy 70, Mexico (69), and China (66). So, the gender role of these countries is specific and overlaps very little.

Examples of Masculine Countries and Culture in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of Masculine Countries in the World (High Score)
Feminine

Femininity denotes traits associated with nurture culture in society. The members of feminine society focus on relationships and quality of life. They are nurtured, cooperative, modest, and caring to other members of society. They also maintain modest behavior in the community and organization.

In the business context, femininity refers to the tender culture in the organization. The Boss does great discussion and intuitive analysis to make decisions.

Examples of Feminine Countries

Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark, Costa Rica, and Finland are considered as the most feminine countries in the world for their low MAS score in this dimension. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Sweden ranked the most feminine country in the world with a score of 5, following Norway (8), Netherlands (14), Denmark (16), Costa Rica (21), and Finland (26). So, the gender role of these countries is fluid that overlaps significantly.

Examples of Most Feminine Countries in the world
Examples of Most Feminine Countries (Low Score)

4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

(Extent of Comfort in Uncertain Situations)

The uncertainty avoidance index describes how people from different countries deal with ambiguous situations. It also identifies the people who are comfortable in uncertain moments and who are scared to encounter unwanted difficulties. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the uncertainty avoidance index differs into two categories: high uncertainty avoidance and low uncertainty avoidance index.

High Uncertainty Avoidance

People in high uncertainty avoidance societies follow the rules and regulations thoroughly to avoid undesirable moments. They prefer to follow routines and make plans to prevent unpredictable moments. They also believe proper planning is an essential component for achievement; hence, parents control their children’s lives excessively. People in high UAI-scoring countries are more traditionalistic, stiff, and structured. The structured person tends to do the right things and avoid unwanted consequences.

Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries

Greece, Guatemala, Russia, Portugal, Belgium, and Japan are considered as the high uncertain avoidance countries. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Greece has become the highest uncertainty avoidance country with a score of 100, following Guatemala (98), Russia (95), Portugal(95), Belgium(94), and Japan(92). So, people from these countries prefer to lead a planned life to avoid unwanted risks.

Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries
Low Uncertainty Avoidance

People in low uncertainty avoidance societies are comfortable with undesirable moments. They mainly act first before garnering enough information. They are not intended to follow all rules and regulations thoroughly; so, they work to reduce the unnecessary rules from society and organizations. People in low UAI countries are relaxed and open-minded; therefore, they do not scare to encounter uncertainty and unpredictability.

Examples of Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries

Singapore (8), Jamaica(13), Denmark(23) and Hongkong(29), Sweden (29), and also Malaysia 36 are examples of low uncertainty avoidance countries. People from these low UAI countries accept the risk easily and do not scare to encounter unwanted situations.

Examples of Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries in the World

5. Long Vs Short Term Orientation

(Pragmatic Versus Normative)

Long versus short-term orientation is a crucial dimension of the Geert Hofstede theory that categorizes society based on pragmatic and normative actions. Michael Harris Bond added this dimension in 1988. It assists to measures the tendency of long-term or short-term results. It also describes how people deal with the past, present, and future.

Long Term Orientation

People in long-term orientation are focused on the future consider it more valuable than the past. They tend to spend huge time to achieve long-term results. The members in the long-term orientated society are practical, modest, and more careful. They also encourage others to utilize time and money properly to achieve the goal.

Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, South Korea(100), Taiwan(93), Japan (88), China(87), Germany(83), and Singapore(72) are the long-term orientation countries in the world. So, people from these countries set long-term goals and expect perseverance and satisfaction.

Long Term Orientation Countries Example in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries
Short Term Orientation

People in short-term orientation are focused on the past and the present, considering them more valuable than the future. They prefer to enjoy the current situation regardless of their future goal. The members in the short-term orientated society are spiritual, normative, and nationalistic.

Examples of Short-Term Orientation Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, Ghana(4), Nigeria(13), Australia(21), United States(26), Philippines(27), and also Norway(35) are considered as the short-term oriented countries in the world. So, people from these countries set short-term goals and expect immediate satisfaction.

Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples
Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries

6. Indulgence Vs Restraint

Indulgent versus restraint stands for cultures that allow people to enjoy or suppress gratification. In the 21st century, Michael Minkov described the six dimensions and extended the Hofstede theory.

Indulgence

Indulgence refers to a society where a higher percentage of people acknowledge that they are leading a happy life. People in an indulgent society enjoy life freely; hence, they have fun and obtain optimistic attitudes. They certainly prioritize having friends, playing games, and spending leisure time appropriately.

Examples of Indulgent Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the most indulgent countries in the world are Venezuela(100), Mexico(97), Puerto Rico(90), El Salvador(89), Nigeria(84), Colombia(83), Germany(83), Trinidad and Tobago(80), Sweden(78), Australia (71), Canada(68), Australia(68), and also Argentina(62).

Example of Indulgent and Restraint Countries in the world in 2022
Example of Indulgent and Restraint Countries in the world in 2022
Restraint

Restraint refers to a society where a smaller percentage of people declare that they are leading a happy life. People in a restrained society suppress gratification and do not focus on the freedom of speech. Additionally, they regulate life by the traditional norms and have pessimistic attitudes.

Examples of Restraint Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, the restraint countries in the world are Pakistan(0), Egypt(4), Latvia(13), Ukraine(14), Albania(15), Belarus(15), Estonia(16), Iraq917), Russia(20), and also China(24).

Differences Between Indulgent and Restrained Societies
Differences between Indulgent and Restrained Societies
Indulgent Versus Restraint

The two additional dimensions of global cultural differences are high context versus low context and monochronic versus polychronic time. In 1976, Edward T. Hall introduced these cultural dimensions that differentiate one from another nation.

High Context Vs Low Context

High context: High context members consider background, interpersonal history, and nonverbal communication cues when communicating. Messages are implied and context-sensitive-for example, Japan, China, Greece, and Mexico.

Low Context: Low-context members want facts a clear, direct communication. Messages are explicit, factual, and objective—for example, in England, the US, and Germany.

 Monochronic Versus Polychronic

Monochronic: Monochronic members focus on one task at a time and work hard to meet deadlines. They also adhere to plans, schedules, and deadlines because time is valuable. For example, people in North America and Northern Europe are mostly monochronic.

Polychronic: Polychronic members are frequently late, do many things at once, are easily distracted, and tolerate interruptions. Additionally, they are not obsessed with promptness or schedules because time is not highly valued. For example, people in Kenya, Argentina, African America, and Asia are polychronic. The monochronic versus polychronic time is an example of chronemic nonverbal communication.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture are Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity vs Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Long Vs Short Term Orientation, and Indulgence Vs Restraint.

What is Culture?

Culture is a set of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, symbols, and norms shared by people in a society or community. The cultures vary from country to country and community to community. For example, Malaysian culture is not similar to Australian culture. Additionally, the culture of African Americans is not identical to White Americans.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/cultural-dimensions-hofstedes-cultural-dimensions-theory-with-six-dimension/