Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory. Also, Definition and Examples of Geert Hofstede Six Cultural Dimensions.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Hofstede’s cultural dimension was developed in 1980 by Dutch management researcher Geert Hofstede. It is also known as Hofstede’s model and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions refer to the conceptual framework that identifies the differences in culture globally.  It shows a systematic process to compare the nations based on beliefs, values, behaviors, and attitudes. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory shows the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members. It also shows how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.

Initially, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory has only four dimensions: power distance index, individualism vs collectivism, masculine vs feminine, and uncertainty avoidance index. In 1988, Michael Harris Bond added the 5th dimension, “Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation”, to Hofestede’s model.  Similarly, in 2010, Michael Minkov described and added the 6th dimension named indulgence vs restraint to Geert Hofstede’s theory. Therefore, it is also known as Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture that evaluates and represents cultural differences globally.

This model generates rank for each country through contained scores on a specific dimension. Each dimension of the Hofstede model is different from other dimensions for its unique factor analysis. Hence, it is one of the critical theories to understand the cultural differences prevalent across the country. Cultural difference creates cultural conflict that is also known as the communication noise barrier.

Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions

Geert Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions are Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity Vs Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Long Vs Short Term Orientation, and Indulgence Vs Restraint. This cultural dimensions theory is beneficial to understand and change the work attitude of the organization, group, team members, and so on. It also assists the negotiators to understand the opposite party during international negotiation. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are a significant model of communication that contributes to international and cross-culture communication.

Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions are:

  1. Power Distance Index (PDI)
  2. Individualism Vs Collectivism
  3. Masculinity Vs Femininity
  4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
  5. Long Vs Short Term Orientation
  6. Indulgence Vs Restraint
Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions- Geert Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions Theory
Geert Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions

1. Power Distance Index(PDI)

(Extent of Inequality and Power Distributed in Society)

Power distance index refers to the degree to how society members accept the distance of power and authority. It is a crucial element of Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions that assess the inequality (more versus less) among members of society. Additionally, it has a significant impact on international business negotiation. The power distance index differs into high power and low power distance index.

High Power Distance

The high power distance refers to the society where less powerful people easily accept the unequal power distribution in the community. It means the acceptance of the inequity between high- and low-status members in society. People in High PDI expect that power will be distributed in society unequally, so they do not complain about inequality. It has become a tradition that they convey from generation to generation. They value traditional norms and social rules. Therefore, people in high power distance countries accept the inequity in organization smoothly.

Example of High Power Distance Countries

Bangladesh, China, India, Singapore, Malaysia, and Arab countries have very high power distance scores; therefore, these countries are examples of high PDI in 2022. For example, Bangladesh and China ranked high power distance countries with scores of 80. Additionally, India scores 77, and Singapore scores 74 in the power distance dimension. People from the following countries easily accept the inequalities between people with high and low power status. People in these countries do not complain; instead, they admit it as a social order.

Hofstede country comparison website: www.hofstede-insights.com. Anyone can compare the country’s culture through the following link.

Example of High Power Distance Countries- High Power Distance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Low Power Distance

Low power distance refers to the culture where less powerful people do not accept unequal power distribution in society easily. It means the acceptance of equity and equality between high- and low-status members in society. The member of the community practice fairness and interdependence activities in society. People in a low PDI society are pragmatic; hence, they are less orientated to traditional values. They also complain about the subsist inequity between high- and low-status members in communities and organizations.

Example of Low Power Distance Countries

Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Germany, and United Kingdom are examples of low power distance countries in 2022. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Austria has achieved the lowest PDI country with 11, following Israel with 13, Denmark with 18, New Zealand with 22, Norway with 31, Germany with 35, and United Kingdom with 35. People from these countries do not accept the inequity between high and low influential people in society, community, and organization. They raise voices against injustice and discrimination in society.

Example of Low Power Distance Index Countries in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

 

Differences Between High and Low Power Distance Culture
High Power Distance Culture
Low Power Distance Culture
People certainly accept the unequal power distribution in society. In contrast, people complain about unequal power distribution.
Junior people respect the senior people in the society and seniors expect obedience Senior and junior people respect each other equally.
Discrimination is prevalent in every sector in the country; for example, social, government, and non-government organizations. On the other hand, people raise voices against discrimination.
The political leader and organizational boss are autocratic people. The political leader and organizational boss are democratic people.
For example, high power distance cultures exist in Bangladesh, China, India, Singapore, Malaysia, and Arab countries. For example, low power distance cultures exist in Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Germany, and United Kingdom.

2. Individualism Vs Collectivism

(Prefer To Work Independently or Interdependently)

Individualism and collectivism are the most significant cultural dimensions that separate the society where people prefer to work personally or interdependently. According to Hofstede’s model, the high score of the country indicates individualistic culture. On the other hand, the low score indicates collectivistic culture. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory encourages collectivistic culture; so, the members of an individualistic society should understand that they are part of a larger group. Therefore, they should pay all-out efforts to achieve a shared goal. Tuckman’s theory of communication discusses more on how to work together in a group to achieve common goals.

Individualism

Individualism refers to the individualistic culture of the society where people prefer to work separately and seek freedom in the workplace. Individualistic members like to work alone and seek credit for their work. In this culture, task prevails the relationship in the workplace. People in individualistic cultures do not want to work in groups, so they set independent goals and appreciate freedom. Thus, they are assertive, self-reliant, competitive, and value individual achievement.

Individualistic Countries Examples

Usually, individualist cultures are prevalent in western countries. For example, the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, Netherland, New Zealand, and Ireland are individualistic countries. According to Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture, the  United States scores 91, following Australia with 90, the United Kingdom with 89, Canada with 80, Netherland with 80, New Zealand with 79, and Ireland with 70. Therefore, people from these countries prefer to work alone and foster independent achievement.

Individualistic Countries Examples

Collectivism

Collectivism refers to the collectivistic culture of the society where people prefer to work together and foster interdependent achievement. Collectivist members like to work in groups and try to help each other. They prefer to work in groups instead of working alone. In this culture, relationship prevails over the task in the business setting. They also emphasize group identity and group success. Hence, they are cooperative, obedient, and self-sacrificing. The family member maintains strong relationships with members in collectivism. On the other hand, family members do not focus on maintaining strong relationships in an individualistic society.

Collectivistic Countries Examples

Collectivist cultures are common in Asian and Latin American countries. Guatemala, Ecuador,  Venezuela, Indonesia, Pakistan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Bangladesh, and Malaysia are considered the most collectivistic nations globally. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, the low score in this dimension indicates a collectivistic society. For example, Guatemala has ranked the most collectivistic country in the world with a score of 06, following Ecuador with 08, Venezuela with 12, Indonesia with 14, Pakistan with 14, Taiwan with 17, South Korea with 18, China with 20, Bangladesh with 20, and Malaysia with 26. So, people from these countries prefer to work in groups and intend to achieve shared goals.

Collectivistic Countries Examples

Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Masculinity vs Femininity

Differences Between Individualistic and Collectivistic Culture

Individualistic Culture
Collectivistic Culture
Firstly, People are intended to work alone. In contrast, people are intended to work in a group or team.
Additionally, people foster personal achievement. People foster group achievement.
In this culture, the member takes responsibility only for the immediate family, including the wife and children. On the other hand, in the collectivistic society, the member takes responsibility for the extended family, including parents and grandparents.
In the workplace, employees are supposed to focus on personal tasks, and they compete with each other for positions. In contrast, employees are supposed to share the workload.
Tasks control the relationship However, relationship prevails over the tasks.
Government plays a small role in society. The government certainly plays the most critical role in society.
Above all, people are assertive, self-reliant, self-interest, competitive, and independent. Whereas, People are obedient, self-sacrificing, cooperative, and interdependent.
I- Consciousness We- Consciousness
For example, the individualistic cultures are prevalent in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Netherland, New Zealand, and Ireland are For example, collectivistic cultures are prevalent in Guatemala, Ecuador,  Venezuela, Indonesia, Pakistan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Bangladesh, and Malaysia.

3. Masculinity Vs Femininity

(Assertiveness and Nurture Society)

Masculinity versus femininity is another dimension of Hofstede’s theory that differentiates society based on gender roles and traits. The high score of the dimension refers to the masculine culture driven by competition and material success. On the other hand, the low score indicates a feminine society driven by the quality of life.

In business circumstances, masculinity versus femininity refers to as “tough versus tender” cultures.

Masculinity

Masculinity pertains to traits associated with assertiveness culture in society. According to Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, men focus on personal tasks and material success in masculine culture. Gender roles are differentiated and, the role of men and women overlap less than feminine society. The men are more assertive, decisive, dominant, and focused on success. On the other hand, the women are more humble, loving, and focused on the quality of life. In this society, men concentrate on assertiveness, heroism, and performance. The men of these societies are more competitive than feminine societies. Children in China learn the importance of personal achievement since childhood. So, they compete with each other for self success.

In business settings, masculinity refers to the rough culture in the organization. The Boss does less discussion with employees to a make- decision.

Examples of Masculine Countries

Slovakia, Japan, Hungary, Austria, Venezuela, Italy, Mexico, and China are considered masculine countries for their high score in this dimension. For example, Slovakia scores 100, following Japan(95), Hungary(88), Austria (79), Venezuela (73), Italy with 70, Mexico (69), and China (66). So, the gender role of these countries is specific and overlap very little.

Examples of Masculine Countries and Culture in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of Masculine Countries in the World (High Score)
Feminine

Femininity denotes traits associated with nurture culture in society. The members of feminine society focus on relationships and quality of life. They are nurtured, cooperative, modest, and caring to other members of society. They also maintain modest behavior in the community and organization.

In the business context, femininity refers to the tender culture in the organization. The Boss does great discussion and intuitive analysis to make decisions.

Examples of Feminine Countries

Sweden, Norway, Netherland, Denmark, Costa Rica, and Finland are considered as the most feminine countries in the world for their low MAS score in this dimension. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Sweden ranked the most feminine country in the world with a score of 5, following Norway (8), Netherland (14), Denmark (16), Costa Rica (21), and Finland (26). So, the gender role of these countries is fluid that overlaps significantly.

Examples of Most Feminine Countries in the world
Examples of Most Feminine Countries (Low Score)

4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

(Extent of Comfort in Uncertain Situations)

The uncertainty avoidance index describes how people from different countries deal with ambiguous situations. It also identifies the people who are comfortable in uncertain moments and who are scared to encounter unwanted difficulties. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the uncertainty avoidance index differs into two categories: high uncertainty avoidance and low uncertainty avoidance index.

High Uncertainty Avoidance

People in high uncertainty avoidance society follow the rules and regulations thoroughly to avoid undesirable moments. They prefer to follow routines and make plans to prevent unpredictable moments. They also believe proper planning is an essential component for achievement; hence, parents control their children’s lives excessively. People in high UAI scoring countries are more traditionalistic, stiff, and structured. The structured person tends to do the right things and avoid unwanted consequences.

Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries

Greece, Guatemala, Russia, Portugal, Belgium, and Japan are considered as the high uncertain avoidance countries. According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, Greece has become the highest uncertainty avoidance country with a score of 100, following Guatemala (98), Russia (95), Portugal(95), Belgium(94), and Japan(92). So, people from these countries prefer to lead a planned life to avoid unwanted risks.

Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries
Low Uncertainty Avoidance

People in low uncertainty avoidance society are comfortable with undesirable moments. They mainly act first before garnering enough information. They are not intended to follow all rules and regulations thoroughly; so, they work to reduce the unnecessary rules from the society and organization. People in low UAI countries are relaxed and open-minded; therefore, they do not scare to encounter uncertainty and unpredictability.

Examples of Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries

Singapore (8), Jamaica(13), Denmark(23) and Hongkong(29), Sweden (29), and also Malaysia 36 are examples of low uncertainty avoidance countries. People from these low UAI countries accept the risk easily and do not scared to encounter unwanted situations.

Examples of Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries in the World

5. Long Vs Short Term Orientation

(Pragmatic Versus Normative)

Long versus short term orientation is a crucial dimension of the Geert Hofstede theory that categorize society based on pragmatic and normative actions. Michael Harris Bond added this dimension in 1988. It assists to measures the tendency of long term or short term results. It also describes how people deal with the past, present and future.

Long Term Orientation

People in long-term orientation are focused on the future consider it more valuable than the past. They tend to spend huge time to achieve long-term results. The members in the long-term orientated society are practical, modest, and more careful. They also encourage others to utilize time and money properly to achieve the goal.

Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, South Korea(100), Taiwan(93), Japan (88), China(87), Germany(83), and Singapore(72) are the long-term orientation countries in the world. So, people from these countries set long-term goals and expect perseverance satisfaction.

Long Term Orientation Countries Example in 2022- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries
Short Term Orientation

People in short-term orientation are focused on the past and the present, considering them more valuable than the future. They prefer to enjoy the current situation regardless of the future goal. The members in the short-term orientated society are spiritual, normative, and nationalistic.

Examples of Short Term Orientation Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, Ghana(4), Nigeria(13), Australia(21), United States(26), Philippines(27), and also Norway(35) are considered as the short-term oriented countries in the world. So, people from these countries set short-term goals and expect immediate satisfaction.

Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries- Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples
Examples of Long Term Orientation Countries

6. Indulgence Vs Restraint

Indulgent versus restraint stands for cultures that allow people to enjoy or suppress gratification. In the 21st century, Michael Minkov described the six dimensions and extended the Hofstede theory.

Indulgence

Indulgence refers to a society where a higher percentage of people acknowledge that they are leading a happy life. People in an indulgent society enjoy life freely; hence, they have fun and obtain optimistic attitudes. They certainly prioritize having friends, playing games, and spending leisure time appropriately.

Examples of Indulgent Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the most indulgent countries in the world are Venezuela(100), Mexico(97), Puerto Rico(90), El Salvador(89), Nigeria(84), Colombia(83), Germany(83), Trinidad and Tobago(80), Sweden(78), Australia (71), Canada(68), Australia(68), and also Argentina(62).

Example of Indulgent and Restraint Countries in the world in 2022
Example of Indulgent and Restraint Countries in the world in 2022
Restraint

Restraint refers to a society where a smaller percentage of people declare that they are leading a happy life. People in a restrained society suppress gratification and do not focus on the freedom of speech. Additionally, they regulate life by the traditional norms and have pessimistic attitudes.

Examples of Restraint Countries

According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, the restraint countries in the world are Pakistan(0), Egypt(4), Latvia(13), Ukraine(14), Albania(15), Belarus(15), Estonia(16), Iraq917), Russia(20), and also China(24).

Differences Between Indulgent and Restrained Societies
Differences between Indulgent and Restrained Societies
Indulgent Versus Restraint

The two additional dimensions of global cultural differences are high context versus low context and monochronic versus polychronic time. In 1976, Edward T. Hall introduced these cultural dimensions that differentiate one from another nation.

High Context Vs Low Context

High context: High context members consider background, interpersonal history, and nonverbal communication cues when communicating. Messages are implied and context-sensitive-for example, Japan, China, Greece, Mexico.

Low Context: Low-context members want facts a clear, direct communication. Messages are explicit, factual, and objective—for example, England, the US, and Germany.

 Monochronic Versus Polychronic

Monochronic: Monochronic members focus on one task at a time and work hard to meet deadlines. They also adhere to plans, schedules, and deadlines because time is valuable. For example, people in North America and Northern Europe are mostly monochronic.

Polychronic: Polychronic members are frequently late, do many things at once, are easily distracted, and tolerate interruptions. Additionally, they are not obsessed with promptness or schedules because time is not highly valued. For example, people in Kenya, Argentina, African Americans, and Asia are polychronic. The monochronic versus polychronic time is an example of chronemics nonverbal communication.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture are Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity vs Femininity, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Long Vs Short Term Orientation, and Indulgence Vs Restraint.

What is Culture?

Culture is a set of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, symbols, and norms shared by people in a society or community. The cultures vary from country to country and community to community. For example, Malaysian culture is not similar to Australian culture. Additionally, the culture of African Americans is not identical to White Americans.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions- Hofstede’s 6 Cultural Dimensions Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/cultural-dimensions-hofstedes-cultural-dimensions-theory-with-six-dimension/

List of Social Groups- Types & Examples of Social groups PDF

List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups PDF. Examples of Social groups. Also, Types of Social Groups in Sociology

Social Groups

Social groups refer to many groups in a society formed by more than two people who communicate regularly to achieve individual and their respective group goals. The people in the same group share similar characteristics, mutual expectations, and shared identity. Many groups have been prevalent in society for thousands of years, such as learning groups, work-group, self-help groups, etc. The social group is divided into many small groups. However, a social group is also known as a small group when a small number of people create the group. Small group communication is significant to achieving the group goal.

Group communication has many stages, tensions, and conflicts, so members need to maintain all the challenges to achieve the final goal. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group discussion are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Members must need to overcome all these stages to achieve the independent and interdependent goal. Additionally, the four types of barriers in group communication are Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

List of Social Groups or Types of Social Groups

The 10 Types of Social Groups are:
  1. Primary Group
  2. Social Group
  3. Self-help Group
  4. Educational or learning Group
  5. Service Group
  6. Civic Group
  7. Work-Group
  8. Public Group
  9. Virtual Group
  10. Also, Political Group

Based on the research, the author has revealed a list of the top 10 types of social groups—the list of the top 10 types of social groups with the overall purpose and example given below.

Examples of Social Groups
1. Primary Group

Firstly, Satisfy primary needs (needs for inclusion [affiliation, belonging] also affection [love, esteem]. Interpersonal communicative behaviors are self-disclosure, empathy, trust, and perceived understanding. Some textbooks also use “long-standing group” because of long-term relationships.

For example, Nuclear family, Roommates, Several friends who meet daily around a table (best friends), and co-workers who regularly share Coffee breaks are under the primary group.

2. Social Group

Some textbooks also use “secondary group,” usually formed to do work. Completing a project, solving a problem, and also making a decision. Although an intimate relationship can develop, the social group shares a common interest or engages in a shared activity.

For example, Athletic Teams and Peer Groups are social groups.

3. Self-help Group

To offer support and encouragement to members who want or need help. A self-help group refers to individuals who share a common problem or life situation. Anonymous and support groups are available on the Internet, providing health, personal, or relationship issues.

For example, Doctor Budak and MyEndosis is a self-help group.

4. Educational or Learning Group

Usually, the Educational or Learning Group primarily discovers and develops new ideas and ways of thinking.
This group is intended to enhance members’ skills, abilities, also cognitive processes.  Members hope to gain additional knowledge or improve behavior.

For example, professional workshops and health and fitness classes (Yoga) are educational and learning groups.

5. Service Group

The service group comprises primarily volunteers who donate their time, energy, and effort to help others in need of a particular service or who lack something that would help them lead a functional life. The task of this group is to help someone less fortunate. To support worthy causes that help people outside the group.

For example, PT Foundation and Kiwanis is a service group.

6. Civic Group

A civic group is formed to support worthy causes that help people within the group.

For example, Fire and Police Auxiliary Groups are civic groups.

7. Work-group

Work-group is also known as decision-making and problem-solving groups (solving and dealing with specific issues)-Occur within an organizational context. Members complete particular tasks and routine duties on behalf of an organization whose members take collective responsibility for the job.

For example, Standing committees, Taskforces, and Management Teams are workgroups.

8. Public group

A public group is focused on discussing important issues in front of or for the benefit of the public. However, the members of this group are key decision-makers.

For example, Symposiums, Panel discussions, and Forums are public groups.

9. Virtual Group

The task-oriented group can collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. Members of the virtual group work interdependently on a task but from different physical locations via communication technology. This group evolves into a virtual community or a group that meets regularly in cyberspace for members to share their experiences, opinions, and knowledge on a particular topic or interest. Virtual groups communicate via virtual meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom meeting, Microsoft Team, and so more. 

For example, a CEO from another country is a virtual group.

10. Political Group

A political group is formed to discuss crucial political party issues and contribute to countries’ well-being.

For example, the Democratic Party Liberal Party is a political groups.

Types of Social Groups PDF
List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups & Examples of social group. Social groups Definition & Examples. 10 Types of Social Groups are Primary group, Social Group, Self-help Group, Educational or Learning Group, Service Group, Service group, Work-group, Public group, Virtual Group, Political Group.
 Types & Examples of Social groups pdf