Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet

Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, and Communist Soviet Theory.  Also, 4 Theories of journalism and mass communication.

Four Theories of the Press

The four theories of the press are authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and communist soviet theory. In 1956, three scholars, Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson, published the Four Theories of the Press Book. It is also known as the four theories of the Press by Wilbur Schramm 1956. The Four Theories of the Press Book describes precisely the four theories of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, and Communist Soviet Theory.

News Values
What are the Four Theories of the Press?
The 4 Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory

Four theories of the press

1. Authoritarian Theory of the Press

The authoritarian theory explains that the government authority directly controls the communication outlets. The government controls the press, information, and communication systems directly and indirectly (Siebert, Peterson, & Schramm, 1956). Sometimes, the government assigns authority to regulate the whole process of the information and communication system in the country. The agency controls the press thoroughly on behalf of the government. For example, the Korean Central News Agency controls the mass media outlets in North Korea.

The press cannot work independently. So, it publishes news and information that the government wants to know about the public in the country.  The authority set the code of conduct for the news agencies. Therefore, the news publishing outlets must need to follow the rules and regulations set by the management. The authority also has the right to provide a license and cancel it. Usually, they revoke the license when the media violate the policies imposed by the government. The media practitioners follow the government’s instructions thoroughly to publish the news.

Authoritarian Theory of the Press Example

During the second world war, Hitler controlled the news media in Germany; hence, no press could publish news without the authority’s permission.

authoritarian theory of the press example in Afghanistan in 2022 when Taliban Took over the power

For example, in 2021, the Taliban took over power in Afghanistan, and the management excessively controls all media. Similarly, in Myanmar, the army chief Min Aung Hlaing seized power in 2021.

For example, in North Korea, Myanmar, and Afghanistan

2. Libertarian theory

Libertarian theory refers to the freedom of the press to disseminate information (Siebert et al., 1956). Therefore, it is also known as the normative theory of mass communication. The mass media outlets are entirely free to publish any ethical news and information. The press works as the watchdog of the community and society in the country.

John Milter was the first introducer of the libertarian press concept. Firstly, In the 1700s, authorities applied the libertarian theory of the press in the USA. After that, and in the 1900s, Europe accepted it. As per the Libertarian press, human beings have the right to know the accurate information published by mass media outlets. The press should disseminate the actual news to society’s people.

Sometimes Wiki leaks platform publishes confidential documents to the public. Therefore, the government of many countries around the world does not allow to practice libertarian press system, and it can impact the political parties to form the government.

Libertarian Theory of the Press Examples

Firstly, mass media and communication systems are free from the government to publish news. The government does not control the press when they disseminate information, even though they criticize its activities. Therefore, journalists and media practitioners manage the press directly.

For example, Canada, Switzerland, and New Zealand

3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory explains that the press media do not need to take permission from the government to distribute news and information; however, they think about society when publishing news. Therefore, the social responsibility theory of the press has linked the libertarian and authoritarian theories. It lies between those two theories. The media are somewhat free from the government but controlled by the people of the country’s society.

Social Responsibility Theory of the Press Example

In mid 20th century, many countries applied the social responsibility theory incorporating “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in the United States in 1949. Anyone can express their opinion through mass media. Additionally, mass media play an essential role in raising a voice against discrimination and corruption.

For example, In the USA, UK, and India

4. Communist Soviet Theory

Communist Soviet Theory describes that the ministry of the respective government controls the press media, but they are free to work for the society. The government regulates and guides the mass media outlets for the benefit of the people. They can publish any news without taking permission from the authority, but the government agency controls the entire system at the end of the day.

Communist Soviet Theory Example

The Soviet Union was reconstructed with the new norms based on the Marxist-Leninist beliefs in the 1917th revolution. Communist Soviet Theory is also known as Soviet Media Theory.

This theory is generated from authoritarian theory but contradicted by the libertarian theory. The government agency owns the press media, but they are free to work for society. Finally, the government set official media to deliver the information to society.

For example, In Russia, China, and Cuba

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022). Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/four-theories-of-the-press-authoritarian-libertarian-social-responsibility-theory/
Reference
Siebert, F., Peterson, T. B., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do (Vol. 10). University of Illinois Press.

 

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022- Happy Eid ul Adha 2022 Mubarak Wishes

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022- Eid ul Adha 2022 Mubarak Wishes. Also, Happy Eid  Mubarak Wishes, Messages & Quotes.

Eid Mubarak Wishes

Eid Mubarak’s wishes are the greeting messages. Muslim people exchange the “Eid Mubarak Wishes” message to celebrate the Eid ul Adha and Eid ul-Firt festivals. Eid Mubarak is an Arabic phrase Muslims use in the Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr celebrations. It is a meaningful message that conveys blessing greetings.

It is a standard greeting message that expresses a blessing festival. Usually, Muslim people greet to pray for blessing festivals. However, some Muslim communities use “Eid Mubarak” as a tradition to exchange greetings without the Eid festival.

Spread Your Eid Happiness With Others By Sharing Eid Mubarak Wishes.

The viewers can use Eid Mubarak greeting messages on their Social Media platforms, including IDC Captions For Instagram, Caption on Facebook, Tweets, etc. Best Eid Mubarak Wishes Message Collection Has Been Presented Below.

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022

Eid ul Fitr 2023 Wishes

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022

Happy Eid Mubarak 2022 To You and All. May Allah S.W.T Grant Peace and Prosperity For Us and Our Family Members. Fid dunyah wal akhirah- Aameen. عيد مبارك، تَقَبَّلَ اللَّهُ مِنَّا وَمِنْكُمْ. Eid Mubarak, Taqabballahu Minna Wa Minkum.

I Am Expressing Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022 To All of My Friends, Family Members, Colleagues, and  Well Wishers. May Allah Bless You and Your Family Members. I Wish You Have a Very Joyful Eid in 2022. May Allah Accept All Our Prayers and Forgive Mistakes.

May Allah Shower His Mercy On Us. Eid Mubarak-2022! We Should Ask For Mercy Before Asking For Happiness and Prosperity.

Assalamalaikum Wa Rahmatullah. Eid Mubarak 2022 To You and All From Me & My Family. I Wish You Have The Best Eid in 2022.

Happy Eid Mubarak-2022! Taqabbalallahu Minna Wa Minkum! May Allah Accept Our Good Deeds.

Eid Mubarak To All My Muslim Friends Who Are Celebrating! Wishing You a Joyous and Happy Eid in 2022.

May The Eid-2022 Bring Countless Joy and Love To Your Heart and Create all The Opportunities For Success. Happy Eid Mubarak!

Eid Mubarak-2022, May Allah Keep Everyone Healthy and Happy.

Eid Mubarak, As Eid Arrives With Its Message of Peace and Goodwill. So, Let It Rekindle Hope In Your Heart. I Wish Happiness For You and Your Family.

It Is A Great Sin Not To Get Food For Those In Need- Happy Eid Mubarak.

Eid Mubarak-2022, May The Countless Blessing of The Almighty Allah
Blesses Your life With Love, Joy, Happiness, Prosperity, and Sound Mental and Physical Health.

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022, 2023, 2024- Eid Greetings Image

Happy Eid Mubarak Wishes

EID Consists of Three Meaningful Letters That Convey a Significant Message For Everyone.
E Is Taken To Mean Embracing The Blessing of The Almighty Allah.
I Is Taken To Mean Inspire Others With Positive Attitudes.
D Is Taken To Mean Distribute The Happiness To All.
Happy Eid Mubarak Wishes To All.

Happy Eid Mubarak To My Beloved Family Members, Relatives, Friends, Neighbors, and Best Wishers.

Wishing a Happy Eid Mubarak To All. Praying Allah Will Bless You With Happiness, Good Mental, and Physical Health.

May This Eid Be Far The Best Eid For You and Your Family With Happiness, Peace, and Prosperity- Happy Eid Mubarak To All.

May The Infinite Blessings of Allah Be With You Today and Everyday- Happy Eid Mubarak.

Wishing a Very Happy Eid Mubarak To All. Praying, May Allah Grant Your Good Deeds and Forgive Your Wrongdoings. Be Blessed With Allah To Obtain Happy, Healthy, and Peaceful Life.

Although I Am Staying Thousands of Miles Away From, Still, I Can Feel Touching and Hugging You- Happy Eid Mubarak Darling.

Eid Mubarak Wishes
Happy Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022

Eid ul Adha

Eid ul Adha is one of the major Islamic festivals following Eid ul Fitr. Muslims around the world commemorate Eid ul Adha to admire the willingness of Ibrahim (AS), who sacrificed his son Ismail (AS), to follow Allah’s command. Muslims sacrifice animals to celebrate this day. Therefore, It is also known as Bakrid Eid and Eid Qurban based on geographic region. Usually, people from India and Pakistan term it Bakrid Eid. However, Bangladeshi people call it Eid Qurban. The Muslim communities observe this festival by praying, sacrificing animals, visiting relatives’ houses, exchanging gifts and food, etc.

Eid al-Adha 2022

The prospective date of the Eid al Adha 2022 celebration is June 28 and 29, 2022, Globally. So, the Eid ul-Adha 2022 will be celebrated by the Muslim community worldwide on 9 and 10 July 2022.

Dates of Eid ul Adha 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025

Eid Al Adha 
Dates 
Eid al Adha 2022 9 and 10 July 2022
Eid al Adha 2023 28  and 29 June 2023- (Wednesday and Thursday)
Eid al Adha 2024 17 June 2024- Monday
Eid al Adha 2025 07 June 2025- Saturday
Eid ul Adha 2022 Wishes

The Eid ul Adha is One of The Biggest Religious Festivals After Eid-al-Fitr For Muslims Communities All Over The World. It Is Also Known as The Muslim’s Feast of Sacrifice. Eid al-Adha Is Set To Be Celebrated on The 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah in The Islamic Calendar. The Festival Normally Lasts For Three To Five Consecutive Days Based on The Region.

During the Celebration, People Send Eid ul Adha Wishes To Their Loved Ones, Friends, Relatives, Families, and Followers. Sending Eid Mubarak Wishes has Become a Custom Now. It is Imperative To Exchange Eid Greetings When We Meet Each Other Physically. However, People Send Eid Mubarak Message Via Phone, Email, and Social Media Platforms To Strength Their Relationships. Here Are Some Eid ul Adha Wishes & Greetings Messages That You Can Copy and Send To Greet Eid Wishes.

Happy Eid-ul-Adha 2022. Praying Eid Will Brings Happiness and Peace To Our Life.

We Are Hoping Not Only To Slaught The Animals To Celebrate Eid ul Adha But Also To Slaught Our Flaws and Sins To Gratify Our Allah- Happy Eid al Adha 2022.

Expressing My Gratitude To The Almighty Allah For Allowing Me To Celebrate One More Eid Ul Adha in 2022. Wishing My Heartfelt Dua, Love, Respect, and Best Wishes To My Family Members, Friends, Relatives, Mentors, Mentees, and Good Wishers. Happy Eid al Adha Mubarak.

Happy Eid Ul Adha Mubarak To My Beloved Family Members, Friends, Relatives, Best Wishers, Haters, and All Muslims Around The World. Wishing Allah Will Bless Us By Washed Away The COVID-19 Pandemic and Fulfiled Our Life With Joy.

Eid ul Adha is Meant To Learn Sacrificing Our Arrogance, Anger, and Malevolence For The Happiness of The Almighty Allah- Happy Eid ul Azah Mubarak 2022.

Eid Mubarak Wishes 2022, 2023, 2024- Eid Al Adha Mubarak Wishes

Eid al-Adha Mubarak Wishes

During The Worldwide Health Pandemic, May Allah SWT Bless You and Your Family Members With Good Health. I Wishing You Have a Blessed Eid- al-Adha.

Assalamualikum and Eid al-Adha Mubarak To Everyone.
May Allah Release The Griefs and Fill Our Life With a Bundle of Accomplishment on Eid. Have a Glorious Time.

The COVID-19 Pandemic Has Extended The Physical Distance; However, It Could Not Reduce Our Love Each Other- Stay Healthy Whenever You Are. Happy Eid al-Adha 2022.

Accept My Virtual Wishes This Time. I Vehemently Believe That Distance Never Can Break Our Relationship. Hoping, We Will Celebrate Eid al-Adha 2022 Together- Happy Eid.

Accept My Happy Eid al Adha Mubarak Greeting and Receive My Sincere Prayers and Love. I Wish a Joyous Eid For Everyone.

I Am Wishing a Very Happy Eid al Azah Mubarak To The Whole Muslim Community Around The World- Happy Eid-Ul-Azha.

Expressing My Gratitude To The Almighty Allah For Giving Me a Chance To Celebrate One More Eid Festival Where Many Have Died Due To The COVID-19 Pandemic. Allah Bless Us With Coronavirusless World. Happy Eid Al Adha Mubarak To Everybody.

Happy Eid al-Adha to all Muslims. Maaf Zahir Batin. May Allah Almighty Accept Our Sacrifice and Fill Our lives With his Blessings.

Eid Mubarak Photo 2022

Eid ul Adha Greetings

The Cows, Camels, and Goats Are Brought For Sacrifice, Not For Show Off On Social Media. May Allah Accept Your Sacrifice- Eid ul Adha Mubarak.

Eid al Adha Greetings

Happy Eid Mubarak and Selamat Hari Raya(Malaysia) To All My Friends and Relatives Around The World. May This Eid Bring Blessings For the entire World and Accept Our Sacrifice. Additionally, Relief Us From Covid 19 Grief.
Stay Safe & Stay Home

Eid Means Happiness and Enjoyment; However, Eid al-Adha Implies Not Only Enjoyment But Also Guides Us To Be Worshiped in The Glory of Sacrifice. This Time May Eid FadeAway All Difficulties in Our Life and Fulfill With Happiness. Happy Eid ul Adha Mubarak To All.

Happy Eid al Adha 2022 Mubarak To Everyone. May Allah Protects Us From The Cathestrophic Pandemic.

I Am Expressing My Happy Eid Mubarak Greeting For Everyone Who Stays Near and Far From Me. May Allah Bless You With Good Health and Wealth. Happy Eid al Adha 2022 Mubarak.

Eid al Azah Taught Us To Sacrifice Our Anger, Arrogance, and Agitation- Happy Eid Mubarak.

I Wish Happy Eid al Adha Mubarak To All My Facebook Friends and Followers. Stay at Home and Stay Safe With Your Beloved Family Members.

EID AL ADHA Is A Blessing Event To Share The Happiness With People From All Walks Of Life in Society. Eid Teaches Us To Be Generous and Charitable To All. Wishing My Heartfelt Dua, Love, and Respect To All Of My Facebook Friends and Followers. I Pray Allah Will Protect Us From The Catastrophic COVID-19 Pandemic. Please Stay At Home and Stay Safe. Eid ul Adha 2022 Mubarak.

Happy Eid ul Adha Mubarak Greetings 

Happy Eid ul Adha 2022. Eid Mubarak To All of My Family Members, Relatives, Friends, and Well Wishers. Expressing My Heartfelt Congratulation and Best Wishes To All. Be Blessed With The Almighty Allah, and Have a Very Enjoyable Eid.

This Eid ul Adha, Let Us Celebrate Indoors in Order to Help Each Other and Our Beloved Ones Stay Safe. May This Day Bring Everyone Contentment and Blessings. Wishing Everyone Eid Mubarak!

Greetings and Best Wishes on Eid-ul-Adha to Everyone. May This Special Occasion Brings Love, Peace, and Prosperity For You.

Eid Mubarak- Wishing Celebrate This Eid-Ul-Adha With Maintaining all Kinds of Health Safety. Eid-Ul-Adha Greetings to all.

I Wish You a Blessed and Precious Happy Eid ul Adha Greetings For You and your Adorable Family Members.

Wishing You a Happy Eid-ul-Adha. May Your Life Be Blessed With Happiness and Success.
Happy Eid ul Adha Mubarak To All. I Am Praying For Peace, Health, and Strength To All Those in Need of Prayer.

Eid Mubarak Wishes

Eid ul Adha Mubarak Wishes, Quotes

Happiness Gets Double When You Share It. Eid Is a Great Festival To Share Your Happiness With People Around You. Eid ul Adha Mubarak To All.

Happy Eid Mubarak To All Who Love Me or Hate Me. May Allah Shower His Plentiful Blessing Upon You- Eid ul Adha Mubarak.

Eid-ul-Adha is About Slaughtering Animals To Please Allah. It Is All About Sacrificing For The Almighty Allah, The Creator of Everything.

Do Not Forget To Share The Legitimate Portion of The Animal Meat Among Poor People Around You. Enjoy Eid Together and Share Happiness- Happy Eid ul Adha Mubarak 2022.

Eid Is Nothing More Than An Opportunity To Sacrifice Your Devotion To The Almighty Allah- Have A Very Happy Eid ul Adha.

Although, We Are Passing Through Critical Moments Due To The Pandemic, Eid Al Adha Mubarak 2022.

 

Eid Mubarak Wishes in the COVID-19 Pandemic

During these challenging conditions, Eid ul Adha Will Be Celebrated in a Different Atmosphere. However, Allah Will Surely Bless You With Happiness, Peace, and Sound Health. Stay Home- Stay Safe.

Eid Mubarak To All. May God Grant Good Health and Peace To Ease the Suffering of Everyone Across the World. #StaySafe

Eid Mubarak Greeting Sample For Celebrities

I wish a very “HAPPY EID UL ADHA MUBARAK” To All My Facebook Friends, Followers, Supporters, Mentors, Mentees, and Well Wishers. Praying, The EID May Brings Countless Happiness and Joy To Your Life. Please Keep Me in Your Prayers.

Justin Trudeau Canadian President Eid Al Adha 2021 Wishes

Tonight, across the country and around the world, Muslims are coming together and observing Eid al-Adha. To everyone celebrating: Eid Mubarak- Justin Trudeau

Eid Mubarak Wishes From Company

The (Your Company Name)  Extends The  Most Sincere Well-wishings and Greetings on Eid al-Adha Occasion. May Almighty God Grants Peace, Joy, and Prosperity For Our Employees, Stakeholders, and Customers. Eid Mubarak 2022!

Eid Mubarak !!! Heartfelt Wishes & Greetings From (Your Company Name).

Eid Mubarak Greetings From (Your Company Name) Team
Wishing Advance Happy Eid-al-Adha and Bakra Eid Mubarak.

Eid Mubarak Wishes Photo 2022

The Blank Image of the Eid Mubarak wish has been uploaded for our visitors. You may download these photos to write your message on them. The organization can attach its logo and name to wish their respective customers and stakeholders.